A system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called 'components' ) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets.
Fields that study the general properties of systems include systems theory, cybernetics, dynamical systems, thermodynamics, and complex systems. They investigate the abstract properties of systems' matter and organization, looking for concepts and principles that are independent of domain, substance, type, or temporal scale.
Some systems share common characteristics, including:
- A system has structure, it contains parts (or components) that are directly or indirectly related to each other;
- A system has behavior, it contains processes that transform inputs into outputs (material, energy or data);
- A system has interconnectivity: the parts and processes are connected by structural and/or behavioral relationships.
- A system's structure and behavior may be decomposed via subsystems and sub-processes to elementary parts and process steps.
The term system may also refer to a set of rules that governs structure and/or behavior. Alternatively, and usually in the context of complex social systems, the term institution is used to describe the set of rules that govern structure and/or behavior.
Other articles related to "system, systems":
... guidance is reported to be virtually jam-proof and the system features automatic guidance to target, enabling evasive action immediately after missile launch ... The fire control system automatically shares all target information among the four Black Sharks of a typical flight in real time, allowing one helicopter to engage a target spotted by another, and the system can ... The "dumb" rocket pods could be upgraded to laser guided with the proposed Ugroza system ...
... be modelled as a non-unitary process by which a system couples with its environment (although the combined system plus environment evolves in a unitary fashion) ... Thus the dynamics of the system alone, treated in isolation, are non-unitary and, as such, are represented by irreversible transformations acting on the system's Hilbert space ... Since the system's dynamics are represented by irreversible representations, then any information present in the quantum system can be lost to the environment or heat bath ...
20th century, Saussure introduced the idea of language as a static system of interconnected units, defined through the oppositions between them ... and paradigm, and the langue- parole distinction, distinguishing language as an abstract system (langue) from language as a concrete manifestation of this system (parole) ...
... interfaces and development environments of the early Apple systems ... In addition, QuickDraw is a raster graphics system, which defines the pixel as its basic unit of graphical information ... This is in contrast to vector graphics systems, where graphics primitives are defined in mathematical terms and rasterized as required to the display resolution ...
... As used in the Engler system (update, of 1964) and in the Wettstein system it consisted of only the single family ... In the Cronquist system it is used for an order (placed in subclass Commelinidae) and circumscribed as (1981) order Cyperales family Cyperaceae family Poaceae (or Gramineae ...
Famous quotes containing the word system:
“Authority is the spiritual dimension of power because it depends upon faith in a system of meaning that decrees the necessity of the hierarchical order and so provides for the unity of imperative control.”
—Shoshana Zuboff (b. 1951)
“He is not a true man of science who does not bring some sympathy to his studies, and expect to learn something by behavior as well as by application. It is childish to rest in the discovery of mere coincidences, or of partial and extraneous laws. The study of geometry is a petty and idle exercise of the mind, if it is applied to no larger system than the starry one.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“As long as learning is connected with earning, as long as certain jobs can only be reached through exams, so long must we take this examination system seriously. If another ladder to employment was contrived, much so-called education would disappear, and no one would be a penny the stupider.”
—E.M. (Edward Morgan)