A system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called 'components' ) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets.
Fields that study the general properties of systems include systems theory, cybernetics, dynamical systems, thermodynamics, and complex systems. They investigate the abstract properties of systems' matter and organization, looking for concepts and principles that are independent of domain, substance, type, or temporal scale.
Some systems share common characteristics, including:
- A system has structure, it contains parts (or components) that are directly or indirectly related to each other;
- A system has behavior, it contains processes that transform inputs into outputs (material, energy or data);
- A system has interconnectivity: the parts and processes are connected by structural and/or behavioral relationships.
- A system's structure and behavior may be decomposed via subsystems and sub-processes to elementary parts and process steps.
The term system may also refer to a set of rules that governs structure and/or behavior. Alternatively, and usually in the context of complex social systems, the term institution is used to describe the set of rules that govern structure and/or behavior.
Other articles related to "system, systems":
... As used in the Engler system (update, of 1964) and in the Wettstein system it consisted of only the single family ... In the Cronquist system it is used for an order (placed in subclass Commelinidae) and circumscribed as (1981) order Cyperales family Cyperaceae family Poaceae (or ...
... The fire control system automatically shares all target information among the four Black Sharks of a typical flight in real time, allowing one helicopter to ... The "dumb" rocket pods could be upgraded to laser guided with the proposed Ugroza system ...
... interfaces and development environments of the early Apple systems ... In addition, QuickDraw is a raster graphics system, which defines the pixel as its basic unit of graphical information ... This is in contrast to vector graphics systems, where graphics primitives are defined in mathematical terms and rasterized as required to the display resolution ...
... century, Saussure introduced the idea of language as a static system of interconnected units, defined through the oppositions between them ... the langue- parole distinction, distinguishing language as an abstract system (langue) from language as a concrete manifestation of this system (parole) ...
... Decoherence can be modelled as a non-unitary process by which a system couples with its environment (although the combined system plus environment evolves in a ... Thus the dynamics of the system alone, treated in isolation, are non-unitary and, as such, are represented by irreversible transformations acting on the ... Since the system's dynamics are represented by irreversible representations, then any information present in the quantum system can be lost to the environment or heat bath ...
Famous quotes containing the word system:
“Authority is the spiritual dimension of power because it depends upon faith in a system of meaning that decrees the necessity of the hierarchical order and so provides for the unity of imperative control.”
—Shoshana Zuboff (b. 1951)
“We now come to the grand law of the system in which we are placed, as it has been developed by the experience of our race, and that, in one word, is SACRIFICE!”
—Catherine E. Beecher (18001878)
“I have no concern with any economic criticisms of the communist system; I cannot enquire into whether the abolition of private property is expedient or advantageous. But I am able to recognize that the psychological premises on which the system is based are an untenable illusion. In abolishing private property we deprive the human love of aggression of one of its instruments ... but we have in no way altered the differences in power and influence which are misused by aggressiveness.”
—Sigmund Freud (18561939)