The Big Five framework of personality traits from Costa & McCrae, 1992 emerged as a robust model for understanding the relationship between personality and various academic behaviors. The Big Five factors are:
- Openness (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious)
- Conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless)
- Extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved)
- Agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind)
- Neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident)
Acronyms commonly used to refer to the five traits collectively are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE.
Beneath each factor, a cluster of correlated specific traits are found; for example, extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity and positive emotions.
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