Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean (also known as the Great Southern Ocean, Antarctic Ocean, South Polar Ocean and Austral Ocean) comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60°S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions (after the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, but larger than the Arctic Ocean). This ocean zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters.

Geographers disagree on the Southern Ocean's northern boundary or even its existence, with many considering the waters part of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans instead. Others regard the Antarctic Convergence, an ocean zone which fluctuates seasonally, as separating the Southern Ocean from other oceans, rather than the 60th parallel. Australian authorities regard the Southern Ocean as lying immediately south of Australia.

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has not yet ratified its 2000 definition of the ocean as being south of 60°S. Its latest published definition of oceans dates from 1953; this does not include the Southern Ocean. However, the more recent definition is used by the IHO and others.

Read more about Southern Ocean:  Geography, Existence and Definitions, Features, Climate, Natural Resources, Natural Hazards, Economy, Ports and Harbors

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... The SCAR Southern Ocean Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR) Survey was established in 1991 by the Australian Antarctic Division,of Environment, Water Heritage and the ... It also serves as reference for other Southern Ocean and Antarctic monitoring programs ...
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... voyage, he briefly considered continuing east, to sail around the Southern Ocean a second time, but soon gave up the idea and turned north for home ... He was carrying letters from old Cape Horn sailors describing conditions in the Southern Ocean, and he frequently consulted these to get a feel for chances of encountering ice ... England, he decided to continue sailing — past the Cape of Good Hope, and across the Indian Ocean for a second time, into the Pacific ...
Southern Ocean - Ports and Harbors
... Few ports or harbors exist on the southern (Antarctic) coast of the Southern Ocean, since ice conditions limit use of most shores to short periods in midsummer ... The Southern Ocean's southernmost port operates at McMurdo Station at 77°50′S 166°40′E / 77.833°S 166.667°E / -77.833 166.667 ... Winter Quarters Bay forms a small harbor, on the southern tip of Ross Island where a floating Ice pier makes port operations possible in summer ...
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... as polar ice caps the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the Antarctic ice sheet ... The vast bulk of the world's sea ice forms in the Arctic ocean and the Southern Ocean, around Antarctica ... The Arctic Ocean is very different, being a polar sea surrounded by land rather than to a polar continent surrounded by sea, and its ice shows less seasonal variation ...

Famous quotes containing the words ocean and/or southern:

    He who constantly swims in the ocean loves dry land.
    Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (1860–1904)

    It was not a Southern watermelon that Eve took: we know it because she repented.
    Mark Twain [Samuel Langhorne Clemens] (1835–1910)