Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.
TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. Causes include falls, vehicle accidents, and violence. Prevention measures include use of technology to protect those suffering from automobile accidents, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of automobile accidents, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws.
Brain trauma can be caused by a direct impact or by acceleration alone. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, brain trauma causes secondary injury, a variety of events that take place in the minutes and days following the injury. These processes, which include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull, contribute substantially to the damage from the initial injury.
TBI can cause a host of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral effects, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. The 20th century saw critical developments in diagnosis and treatment that decreased death rates and improved outcome. Some of the current imaging techniques used for diagnosis and treatment include CT scans computed tomography and MRIs magnetic resonance imaging. Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications, emergency surgery or surgery years later. Physical therapy, speech therapy, recreation therapy, and occupational therapy may be employed for rehabilitation.
Other articles related to "traumatic brain injury, brain, injury, brain injury":
... Traumatic brain injury (TBI, physical trauma to the brain) can cause a variety of complications, health effects that are not TBI themselves but that result from it ... the severity of the trauma however even mild traumatic brain injury can result in disabilities that interfere with social interactions, employment, and everyday living ...
... No medication to halt the progression of secondary injury exists, but the variety of pathological events presents opportunities to find treatments that interfere with the damage processes ... Neuroprotection, methods to halt or mitigate secondary injury, have been the subject of great interest for their ability to limit the damage that follows TBI ... For example, interest existed in hypothermia, cooling the injured brain to limit TBI damage, but clinical trials showed that it is not useful in the treatment of TBI ...
... include addiction, autism, psychopathy, creativity, dementia, traumatic brain injury, and schizophrenia ... Traumatic Brain Injury TBI has been described as a “hallmark injury” of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan ... Diagnosis of traumatic brain injury is complicated by the lack of truly objective criteria ...
... commonly observed following a frontal lobe injury, such traits are hard to evaluate and quantify without some degree of subjectivity ... to measure the effects of a frontal lobe injury, or the aspects of cognitive function it may affect, such as working memory variety of tests must be used ... facilitating memory, but what is clear is that more in-depth research of brain injury patients is needed ...
... divided as to whether the seat of the soul lies in the brain or heart ... Aristotle favored the heart, and thought that the function of the brain was merely to cool the blood ... Hippocrates, the "father of medicine", came down unequivocally in favor of the brain ...
Famous quotes containing the words injury, traumatic and/or brain:
“Justice consists in doing no injury to men; decency in giving them no offence.”
—Marcus Tullius Cicero (10643 B.C.)
“Theres a quality of legend about freaks. Like a person in a fairy tale who stops you and demands that you answer a riddle. Most people go through life dreading theyll have a traumatic experience. Freaks were born with their trauma. Theyve already passed their test in life. Theyre aristocrats.”
—Diane Arbus (19231971)
“My mother is jelly-hearted and she has a brain of jelly:
Sweet, quiver-soft, irrelevant. Not essential.
Only a habit would cry if she should die....”
—Gwendolyn Brooks (b. 1917)