Sugar is the generalised name for a class of sweet-flavored substances used as food. They are carbohydrates and as this name implies, are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide. Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose.
Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants but are only present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction in sugarcane and sugar beet. Sugarcane is a giant grass and has been cultivated in tropical climates in the Far East since ancient times. A great expansion in its production took place in the 18th century with the setting up of sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas. This was the first time that sugar became available to the common people who had previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods. Sugar beet is a root crop and is cultivated in cooler climates and became a major source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the sugar became available. Sugar production and trade has changed the course of human history in many ways. It influenced the formation of colonies, the perpetuation of slavery, the transition to indentured labour, the migration of peoples, wars between 19th century sugar trade controlling nations and the ethnic composition and political structure of the new world.
The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. Sugar provides empty calories.
Since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in sugars, especially refined sugars, is bad for health. Sugar has been linked to obesity and suspected of being implicated in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, macular degeneration and tooth decay. Numerous studies have been undertaken to try to clarify the position but the results remain largely unclear, mainly because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that do not consume sugars.
Other articles related to "sugar, sugars":
... Different culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture ... The Domino Sugar Company has established the following volume to weight conversions Brown sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 195 g = 6.88 oz Granular sugar 1 cup = 48 teaspoons ~ 200 ...
... was founded in 1993, and is run by Sugar's son Daniel Patrick ... Amstrad, the name Amsair is an acronym taken from the initials of Sugar's name "Alan Michael Sugar Air." Amsair operates a large Cessna fleet, and one Embraer Legacy 650 with the registration G-SUGA ...
... In May 2008, Sugar made an appearance on An Audience Without Jeremy Beadle to pay tribute to Jeremy Beadle as they were close friends and both appeared on a ... Also in 2009, Sugar appeared in television advertisements for investment bank NS I and The Learning and Skills Council talking about apprenticeships ... In May 2011, Sugar presented Lord Sugar Tackles Football, a documentary looking into the financial woes of English football ...
... Sugar was knighted in 2000 for services to business ... On 5 June 2009 it was reported that Sugar had been offered a peerage by Prime Minister Gordon Brown as part of a new enterprise role in his government, and he was subsequently ...
... Alan Michael Sugar, Baron Sugar (born 24 March 1947) is a British business magnate, media personality, and political advisor ... From humble origins in the East End of London, Sugar now has an estimated fortune of £770m (US$1.14 billion) and was ranked 89th in the Sunday Times Rich List 2011 ... Sugar is also notable for his time as chairman of Tottenham Hotspur from 1991 to 2001 ...
Famous quotes containing the word sugar:
“The sugar maple is remarkable for its clean ankle. The groves of these trees looked like vast forest sheds, their branches stopping short at a uniform height, four or five feet from the ground, like eaves, as if they had been trimmed by art, so that you could look under and through the whole grove with its leafy canopy, as under a tent whose curtain is raised.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“A good neighbour, even in this,
Is fatal sometimes, cuts your morning up
To mince-meat of the very smallest talk,
Then helps to sugar her bohea at night
With your reputation.”
—Elizabeth Barrett Browning (18061861)
“To one who habitually endeavors to contemplate the true state of things, the political state can hardly be said to have any existence whatever. It is unreal, incredible, and insignificant to him, and for him to endeavor to extract the truth from such lean material is like making sugar from linen rags, when sugar-cane may be had.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)