Speech is the vocalized form of human communication. It is based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 10,000 different words) vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their set of speech sound units differ, creating the existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages. Most human speakers (polyglots) are able to communicate in two or more of them. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing.
A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language. Speech in some cultures has become the basis of a written language, often one that differs in its vocabulary, syntax and phonetics from its associated spoken one, a situation called diglossia. Speech in addition to its use in communication, it is suggested by some psychologists such as Vygotsky is internally used by mental processes to enhance and organize cognition in the form of an interior monologue.
Speech is researched in terms of the speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in vocal language. Other research topics concern speech repetition, the ability to map heard spoken words into the vocalizations needed to recreated that plays a key role in the vocabulary expansion in children and speech errors. Several academic disciplines study these including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, otolaryngology and computer science. Another area of research is how the human brain in its different areas such as the Broca's area and Wernicke's area underlies speech.
It is controversial how far human speech is unique in that other animals also communicate with vocalizations. While none in the wild have compatibly large vocabularies, research upon the nonverbal abilities of language trained apes such as Washoe and Kanzi raises the possibility that they might have these capabilities. The origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate and speculation.
Other articles related to "speech":
... Along with the change in her speech, she also began to have seizures ... of Texas at Dallas has sound clips of her speech from before the incident, and after her speech had been affected ...
... During his acceptance speech Pearson criticised American bombing of Vietnam, The seemingly harmless speech infuriated former President Lyndon B ... Pearson later apologized for the speech ...
... Festival is a general multi-lingual speech synthesis system originally developed by Alan W ... Black at Centre for Speech Technology Research (CSTR) at the University of Edinburgh ... It offers a full text to speech system with various APIs, as well as an environment for development and research of speech synthesis techniques ...
... FreeTTS is an open source speech synthesis system written entirely in the Java programming language ... FreeTTS is an implementation of Sun's Java Speech API ... FreeTTS supports end-of-speech markers ...
... Searle (1975) set up the following classification of illocutionary speech acts assertives = speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition directives = speech acts that are to ... requests, commands and advice commissives = speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action, e.g ... promises and oaths expressives = speech acts that express on the speaker's attitudes and emotions towards the proposition, e.g ...
Famous quotes containing the word speech:
“Speech is power: speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel. It is to bring another out of his bad sense into your good sense.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“I love eulogies. They are the most moving kind of speech because they attempt to pluck meaning from the fog, and on short order, when the emotions are still ragged and raw and susceptible to leaps.”
—Peggy Noonan (b. 1950)
“What are men celebrating? They are all on a committee of arrangements, and hourly expect a speech from somebody. God is only the president of the day, and Webster is his orator.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)