**Logic** (from the Greek λογική, *logikē*) refers to both the study of modes of reasoning (which are valid and which are fallacious) and the use of valid reasoning. In the latter sense, logic is used in most intellectual activities, including philosophy and science, but in the first sense, is primarily studied in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. It examines general forms that arguments may take. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Logic is also studied in argumentation theory.

Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including India, China, and Greece. In the west, logic was established as a formal discipline by Aristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy. The study of logic was part of the classical trivium, which also included grammar and rhetoric.

Logic is often divided into three parts, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning.

Read more about Logic: The Study of Logic, History

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**logic**include Alan Ross Anderson (USA, 1925–1973) ... One of the founders of relevance

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**logic**, two mutually exclusive propositions are propositions that logically cannot be true at the same time ...

**Logic**

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**logic**is the simple system known as LP ("

**Logic**of Paradox"), first proposed by the Argentinian logician F ... (or tautologies) of LP are precisely those of classical propositional

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**logic**differ only in the inferences they deem valid.) Relaxing the requirement that every formula be either true or false yields the weaker ...

... is the need for maximum flexibility in the code and resources dedicated to the presentation

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**Logic**- Applications

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**logic**has been applied as a means of managing inconsistency in numerous domains, including Semantics ... Paraconsistent

**logic**has been proposed as means of providing a simple and intuitive formal account of truth that does not fall prey to paradoxes such as the ... Some believe that paraconsistent

**logic**has significant ramifications with respect to the significance of Russell's paradox and Gödel's incompleteness ...

### Famous quotes containing the word logic:

“There is no morality by instinct.... There is no social salvation—in the end—without taking thought; without mastery of *logic* and application of *logic* to human experience.”

—Katharine Fullerton Gerould (1879–1944)

“Our argument ... will result, not upon *logic* by itself—though without *logic* we should never have got to this point—but upon the fortunate contingent fact that people who would take this logically possible view, after they had really imagined themselves in the other man’s position, are extremely rare.”

—Richard M. Hare (b. 1919)

“Though living is a dreadful thing

And a dreadful thing is it

Life the niggard will not thank,

She will not teach who will not sing,

And what serves, on the final bank,

Our *logic* and our wit?”

—Philip Larkin (1922–1986)