Logics

Logics

Logic (from the Greek λογική, logikē) refers to both the study of modes of reasoning (which are valid, and which are fallacious) and the use of valid reasoning. In the latter sense, logic is used in most intellectual activities, including philosophy and science, but in the first sense, is primarily studied in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. It examines general forms that arguments may take. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Logic is also studied in argumentation theory.

Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including India, China, and Greece. In the west, logic was established as a formal discipline by Aristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy. The study of logic was part of the classical trivium, which also included grammar and rhetoric.

Logic is often divided into three parts, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning.

Other articles related to "logics, logic":

Three-valued Logic - Logics - Łukasiewicz Logic
... Further information Łukasiewicz logic The Łukasiewicz Ł3 has the same tables for AND, OR, and NOT as the Kleene logic given above ... This section follows the presentation from Malinowski's chapter of the Handbook of the History of Logic, vol 8 ... that..." or in the (unsuccessful) Tarksi-Łukasiewicz attempt to axiomatize modal logic using a three-valued logic, "it is possible that..." L is read "it is true that..." or "i ...
Logics - Topics in Logic - Rejection of Logical Truth
... contains many kinds of doubt and rejection of the various bases on which logic rests, such as the idea of logical form, correct inference, or meaning, typically leading to the conclusion that there are no ... Observe that this is opposite to the usual views in philosophical skepticism, where logic directs skeptical enquiry to doubt received wisdoms, as in the work of ... Nietzsche provides a strong example of the rejection of the usual basis of logic his radical rejection of idealisation led him to reject truth as a "...mobile army of metaphors ...
BL (logic)
... Basic fuzzy Logic (or shortly BL), the logic of continuous t-norms, is one of t-norm fuzzy logics ... It belongs to the broader class of substructural logics, or logics of residuated lattices it extends the logic of all left-continuous t-norms MTL ...
Connexive Logic
... Connexive logic names one class of alternative, or non-classical, logics designed to exclude the so-called paradoxes of material implication ... Other logical theories with the same agenda include relevance logic, also known as relevant logic.) The characteristic that separates connexive logic from other non-classic ... Stronger connexive logics also accept Boethius' Thesis, ((p → q) → ~(p → ~q)) which states that if a statement implies one thing, it does not imply its opposite ...
Leibniz Operator - Hierarchy
... that may or may not be satisfied for particular sentential logics have given rise to what is now known as the abstract algebraic hierarchy or Leibniz hierarchy of sentential logics ... Logics are classified in various steps of this hierarchy depending on how strong a tie exists between the logic and its algebraic counterpart ... The properties of the Leibniz operator that help classify the logics are monotonicity, injectivity, continuity and commutativity with inverse substitutions ...

Famous quotes containing the word logics:

When logics die,
The secret of the soil grows through the eye,
And blood jumps in the sun;
Above the waste allotments the dawn halts.
Dylan Thomas (1914–1953)