Number

A number is a mathematical object used to count, label, and measure. In mathematics, the definition of number has been extended over the years to include such numbers as zero, negative numbers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and complex numbers.

Mathematical operations are certain procedures that take one or more numbers as input and produce a number as output. Unary operations take a single input number and produce a single output number. For example, the successor operation adds one to an integer, thus the successor of 4 is 5. Binary operations take two input numbers and produce a single output number. Examples of binary operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation. The study of numerical operations is called arithmetic.

A notational symbol that represents a number is called a numeral. In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (telephone numbers), for ordering (serial numbers), and for codes (e.g., ISBNs).

In common use, the word number can mean the abstract object, the symbol, or the word for the number.

Read more about Number:  Classification of Numbers, Numerals

Other articles related to "number, numbers":

39 (number) - In Mathematics
39 is the smallest natural number which has three partitions into three parts which all give the same product when multiplied {25, 8, 6}, {24, 10, 5}, {20, 15, 4} ... The thirteenth Perrin number is 39, which comes after 17, 22, 29 (it is the sum of the first two mentioned) ... + 1 = 1522 is 761, which is obviously more than 39 twice, 39 is a Størmer number ...
Natural Logarithm - Origin of The Term natural Logarithm
... But mathematically, the number 10 is not particularly significant ... for many societies’ numbering systems—likely arises from humans’ typical number of fingers ... As an example, there are a number of simple series involving the natural logarithm ...
38 (number)
... This article discusses the number thirty-eight. 39 → 38 ← 39 ... → List of numbers — Integers 90 ... → Cardinal thirty-eight Ordinal 38th (thirty-eighth) Factorization Divisors 1, 2, 19, 38 ...
496 (number) - In Mathematics
496 is most notable for being a perfect number, and one of the earliest numbers to be recognized as such ... As a perfect number, it is tied to the Mersenne prime 31, 25 - 1, with 24 ( 25 - 1 ) yielding 496 ... Also related to its being a perfect number, 496 is a harmonic divisor number, since the number of proper divisors of 496 divided by the sum of the reciprocals of its divisors, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 31, 62 ...
39 (number) - In Other Fields
... with their first, "'39" does in fact fall in the thirty-ninth position The retired jersey number of former baseball player Roy Campanella The book series "The 39 Clues ... History The number of signers to the United States Constitution, out of 55 members of the Philadelphia Convention delegates The traditional number of times citizens of Ancient ... Japanese Internet chat slang for "thank you" when written with numbers (3=san 9=kyu) Pier 39 in San Francisco The number of the French department Jura In Afghanistan, the number 39 is considered ...

Famous quotes containing the word number:

    My tendency to nervousness in my younger days, in view of the fact of a number of near relatives on both my father’s and mother’s side of the house having become insane, gave some serious uneasiness. I made up my mind to overcome it.... In the cross-examination of witnesses before a crowded court-house ... I soon found I could control myself even in the worst of testing cases. Finally, in battle.
    Rutherford Birchard Hayes (1822–1893)

    How often should a woman be pregnant? Continually, or hardly ever? Or must there be a certain number of pregnancy anniversaries established by fashion? What do you, at the age of forty-three, have to say on the subject? Is it a fact that the laws of nature, or of the country, or of propriety, have ordained this time of life for sterility?
    Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl Chesterfield (1694–1773)

    Hence, a generative grammar must be a system of rules that can iterate to generate an indefinitely large number of structures. This system of rules can be analyzed into the three major components of a generative grammar: the syntactic, phonological, and semantic components.
    Noam Chomsky (b. 1928)