The International Space Station (ISS) is a habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. It follows the Salyut, Almaz, Skylab and Mir stations as the ninth space station to be inhabited. The ISS is a modular structure whose first component was launched in 1998. Like many artificial satellites, the station can be seen with the naked eye from Earth without any special equipment. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components. ISS components have been launched by American Space Shuttles as well as Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets. Budget constraints led to the merger of three space station projects with the Japanese Kibō module and Canadian robotics. In 1993 the partially built Soviet/Russian Mir-2, the proposed American Freedom, and the proposed European Columbus merged into a single multinational programme. The Russian Federal Space Agency (RSA/RKA) is using the ISS as a work site to assemble their next space station, called OPSEK. Modules and components for the new station began arriving on orbit in 2010, and the RSA plans to commission the new station before the remainder of the ISS is de-orbited.
The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars.
The station has been continuously occupied for 700112000000000000012 years and 700124000000000000024 days, having exceeded the previous record of almost 10 years (or 3,634 days) held by Mir, in 2010. The station is serviced by Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft, the Automated Transfer Vehicle, the H-II Transfer Vehicle, and formerly the Space Shuttle. It has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations. On 25 May 2012, Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (or SpaceX) became the world's first privately held company to send a cargo load, via the Dragon spacecraft, to the International Space Station.
The ISS programme is a joint project between five participating space agencies: NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided into two sections, the Russian orbital segment (ROS) and the United States orbital segment (USOS), which is shared by many nations. The ISS is maintained at an orbital altitude of between 330 km (205 mi) and 410 km (255 mi). It completes 15.7 orbits per day. The ISS is funded until 2020, and may operate until 2028.
Other articles related to "space, international, international space station, station, space station":
... cost of the X-38 program at US$96 million (Space Flight Advanced Projects funds) and the actual CRV program at US$1.1 billion (ISS Program funds) ... additional funds for this purpose unless it is made clear that the Administration and the international partners are committed to the International Space Station as a research facility ... and conditions First, a clear and unambiguous statement on the role of research in the International Space Station program ...
... As of 2010 NASA budgeted $58.7 billion for the station from 1985 to 2015, or $72.4 billion in 2010 dollars ... The cost is $150 billion including 36 shuttle flights at $1.4 billion each, Russia's $12 billion ISS budget, Europe's $5 billion, Japan's $5 billion, and Canada's $2 billion ...
... Jerry O'Neill Tank Sullivan Ethan Glance Roger Hines Space Cowboys (2000), film Space Shuttle Daedalus Contemporary NASA astronauts on a satellite salvage mission ... The Switch (2000), novel Space Shuttle Contemporary Career astronaut accused of murder ... Julie Foley Men with Brooms (2002), film Contemporary Astronaut for the American Space Agency (ASA) Chuck Taggart Kurt Mendel Neil Taggart Sarah Forbes Angela Perry Odyssey 5 (200 ...
... Astronaut in space onboard Mercury-Redstone 3 and only Mercury Seven astronaut to walk on the Moon while commanding Apollo 14 a Schirra, WallyWally Schirra 1946 Only ... Smith 1967 Pilot of the Space Shuttle Challenger when it was destroyed during STS-51-L a Bolden, Jr. 1971 Pilot of STS-38, commanded STS-51 and International Space Station Expedition 3 a Leestma, DavidDavid Leestma 1971 Mission specialist on STS-41-G, STS-28 and STS-45 ...
... Soyuz TMA-19 was a manned spaceflight to the International Space Station and is part of the Soyuz programme ... June 15, 2010 carrying three members of the Expedition 24 crew to the International Space Station, who remained aboard the station for around six months ... The spacecraft remained docked to the space station for the remainder of Expedition 24, and for Expedition 25, to serve as an emergency escape vehicle ...
Famous quotes containing the words station and/or space:
“Say first, of God above, or Man below,
What can we reason, but from what we know?
Of Man what see we, but his station here,
From which to reason, or to which refer?
Thro worlds unnumberd tho the God be known,
Tis ours to trace him only in our own.
—Alexander Pope (16881744)
“Here in the U.S., culture is not that delicious panacea which we Europeans consume in a sacramental mental space and which has its own special columns in the newspapersand in peoples minds. Culture is space, speed, cinema, technology. This culture is authentic, if anything can be said to be authentic.”
—Jean Baudrillard (b. 1929)