Pronunciation Respelling For English
Pronunciation respelling is a notation used to convey the pronunciation of words, in a language, such as English, which does not have a phonemic orthography.
There are two basic types of pronunciation respelling. "Phonemic" systems, as commonly found in American dictionaries, consistently use one symbol per English phoneme. These systems are conceptually equivalent to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) commonly used in bilingual dictionaries and scholarly writings, but tend to use symbols based on English rather than Romance-language spelling conventions (e.g. ē for IPA /i/) and avoid non-alphabetic symbols (e.g. sh for IPA /ʃ/). On the other hand, "non-phonemic" or "newspaper" systems, commonly used in newspapers and other non-technical writings, avoid diacritics and literally "respell" words making use of well-known English words and spelling conventions, even though the resulting system may not have a one-to-one mapping between symbols and sounds.
As an example, the last name of actor Jake Gyllenhaal, written ˈdʒɪlənhɔːl in the IPA, might be written jĭl′·ən·hôl or JIL-ən-hawl in a phonemic system, and Jill-in-hall in a non-phonemic system.
Read more about Pronunciation Respelling For English: Development and Use, Traditional Respelling Systems, International Phonetic Alphabet, Pronunciation Respelling Systems in Dictionaries For English-language Learners, Pronunciation Respelling Systems For Children's Dictionaries, Other Uses of Pronunciation Respelling, See Also
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—George Berkeley (16851753)