Mapping usually refers to map-making and often used instead of cartography. Mapping term is also sometimes used for geospatial data collection or (e.g. LIDAR mapping) but in fact it is not mapping because a map is created through some cartographic works (i.e. determining the scale/level of detail and content of geographic or cartographic database, entry criteria and symbol specification for geospatial objects, generalization, layout design etc.). In other words, the acquisition of data with (geographic) coordinates directly from terrain or imagery does not mean mapping but surveying.

In biology and neuroscience:

  • Gene mapping, the assignment of DNA fragments to chromosomes
  • Brain mapping, set of techniques to study the brain

In mathematics:

  • Map (mathematics), often a synonym for function
  • Functional predicate, a logical symbol that may be applied to an object term to produce another object term

In computing:

  • Data mapping, data element mappings between two distinct data models
  • Level design, the creation of levels, locales, stages, or missions for a video game
  • Memory-mapped I/O, hardware pretending to be memory
  • Page mapping, or paging, in virtual memory systems
  • Cache mapping, the mapping of main memory locations into entries of a cache (computing)
  • Texture mapping, in computer graphics
  • Device mapping, the assignment of I/O devices to file descriptors, file names, file numbers, etc.

In logic, linguistics, and psychology:

  • Conceptual metaphor, an understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain
  • Metaphor, cross mapping across two or more seemingly unrelated subjects
  • Analogy, inference from a particular to another particular

In operations research:

  • Mapping of operational areas for the placement of resources in Production, costs, and pricing sites
  • Mapping of sales regions and the location of customers for directing marketing efforts
  • Mapping of supply chains for distribution and transportation and logistics
  • Mapping a strategic "road map" for execution of business plans

In robotics:

  • Mapping of operational areas for the routing of robots on confined paths
  • Motion planning a map from exploration of viable routes
  • Robotic mapping

In religion and mythology:

  • Spiritual mapping, a practice of some religions