**Symbol**

- In graph theory, the connectivity of a graph is given by κ.
- In differential geometry, the curvature of a curve is given by κ.
- In physics, the torsional constant of an oscillator is given by κ as well as Einstein constant of gravitation.
- In structural engineering, κ is the ratio of the smaller factored moment to the larger factored moment and is used to calculate the critical elastic moment of an unbraced steel member.
- In electrical engineering, κ is the multiplication factor, a function of the
*R/X*ratio of the equivalent power system network, which is used in calculating the peak short-circuit current of a system fault. κ is also used to notate conductivity, the reciprocal of resistivity, rho. - In chemistry, the compressibility of a compound is given by κ.
- In psychology and psychiatry, kappa represents a measure of diagnostic reliability.
- In biology, kappa and kappa prime are important nucleotide motifs for a tertiary interaction of group II introns.
- In biology, kappa designates a subtype of an antibody component.
- In pharmacology, kappa represents a type of opioid receptor.
- Kappa statistics such as Cohen's kappa and Fleiss' kappa are methods for calculating inter-rater reliability.

Upper-case letter Κ is used as a symbol for:

- In textual criticism, the Byzantine text-type (from Κοινη,
*Koine*, the common text). - In set theory, kappa is often used to denote an ordinal which is also a cardinal.

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### Famous quotes containing the word symbol:

“A pool is, for many of us in the West, a *symbol* not of affluence but of order, of control over the uncontrollable. A pool is water, made available and useful, and is, as such, infinitely soothing to the western eye.”

—Joan Didion (b. 1934)

“A *symbol* is indeed the only possible expression of some invisible essence, a transparent lamp about a spiritual flame; while allegory is one of many possible representations of an embodied thing, or familiar principle, and belongs to fancy and not to imagination: the one is a revelation, the other an amusement.”

—William Butler Yeats (1865–1939)

“No one is without Christianity, if we agree on what we mean by that word. It is every individual’s individual code of behavior by means of which he makes himself a better human being than his nature wants to be, if he followed his nature only. Whatever its *symbol*—cross or crescent or whatever—that *symbol* is man’s reminder of his duty inside the human race.”

—William Faulkner (1897–1962)