Galois Theory - Permutation Group Approach To Galois Theory

Permutation Group Approach To Galois Theory

Given a polynomial, it may be that some of the roots are connected by various algebraic equations. For example, it may be that for two of the roots, say A and B, that A2 + 5B3 = 7. The central idea of Galois theory is to consider those permutations (or rearrangements) of the roots having the property that any algebraic equation satisfied by the roots is still satisfied after the roots have been permuted. An important proviso is that we restrict ourselves to algebraic equations whose coefficients are rational numbers. (One might instead specify a certain field in which the coefficients should lie but, for the simple examples below, we will restrict ourselves to the field of rational numbers.)

These permutations together form a permutation group, also called the Galois group of the polynomial (over the rational numbers). To illustrate this point, consider the following examples:

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