A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. Usage of the term republic is inconsistent but, as a minimum, it means a state or federation of states that does not have a monarch.
In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the national ("federal") government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, national security and defense, monetary policy, and other issues of a "national" scope are handled at the "federal" level while more local issues such as road and infrastructure maintenance and education policy are handled at the local level. However, views differ on what issues should be managed at "federal" levels and governance at the state-level, e.g.. While the federal government has sovereignty and responsibility in some matters apart from the say of sub-divisional governmental structures, the subdivisions also have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. This is in contrast to a unitary republic whereby the national government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. In this case, regional structures of governance are just structures of national or federal governance, not having any autonomous ability to govern, legislate, or execute the law autonomously at that regional level. So regional governance of any form is not governance except as purely an administrative subdivisions of the larger governmental structure. A confederation is a form of republic whereby the constituent states or regional governing bodies have ultimate sovereignty and there is no autonomous federal government apart from the working together of the regional bodies or states on issues affecting the whole. The federal republic is a form of government used by many countries around the world and it can take almost any form- from aristocracies to democracies to tyrannies. As in the United States, many federal republics are Constitutional Republics which seek to ensure the rights of individuals and groups within the republic.
Famous quotes containing the words federal and/or republic:
“Daniel as a lad bought a handkerchief on which the Federal Constitution was printed; it is said that at intervals while working in the meadows around this house, he would retire to the shade of the elms and study the Constitution from his handkerchief.”
—For the State of New Hampshire, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)
“History in the making is a very uncertain thing. It might be better to wait till the South American republic has got through with its twenty-fifth revolution before reading much about it. When it is over, some one whose business it is, will be sure to give you in a digested form all that it concerns you to know, and save you trouble, confusion, and time. If you will follow this plan, you will be surprised to find how new and fresh your interest in what you read will become.”
—Anna C. Brackett (18361911)