**Arithmetic** or **arithmetics** (from the Greek word ἀριθμός, *arithmos* "number") is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. It involves the study of quantity, especially as the result of operations that combine numbers. In common usage, it refers to the simpler properties when using the traditional operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with smaller values of numbers. Professional mathematicians sometimes use the term *(higher) arithmetic* when referring to more advanced results related to number theory, but this should not be confused with elementary arithmetic.

Read more about Arithmetic: History, Arithmetic Operations, Decimal Arithmetic, Compound Unit Arithmetic, Number Theory, Arithmetic in Education

### Famous quotes containing the word arithmetic:

“‘Tis no extravagant *arithmetic* to say, that for every ten jokes,—thou hast got an hundred enemies; and till thou hast gone on, and raised a swarm of wasps about thine ears, and art half stung to death by them, thou wilt never be convinced it is so.”

—Laurence Sterne (1713–1768)

“Your discovery of the contradiction caused me the greatest surprise and, I would almost say, consternation, since it has shaken the basis on which I intended to build my *arithmetic*.... It is all the more serious since, with the loss of my rule V, not only the foundations of my *arithmetic*, but also the sole possible foundations of *arithmetic* seem to vanish.”

—Gottlob Frege (1848–1925)

“Under the dominion of an idea, which possesses the minds of multitudes, as civil freedom, or the religious sentiment, the power of persons are no longer subjects of calculation. A nation of men unanimously bent on freedom, or conquest, can easily confound the *arithmetic* of statists, and achieve extravagant actions, out of all proportion to their means; as, the Greeks, the Saracens, the Swiss, the Americans, and the French have done.”

—Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)