Textual Criticism

Textual criticism (or lower criticism) is a branch of literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of transcription errors in the texts of manuscripts. Ancient scribes made errors or alterations when copying manuscripts by hand. Given a manuscript copy, several or many copies, but not the original document, the textual critic seeks to reconstruct the original text (the archetype or autograph) as closely as possible. The same processes can be used to attempt to reconstruct intermediate editions, or recensions, of a document's transcription history. The ultimate objective of the textual critic's work is the production of a "critical edition" containing a text most closely approximating the original.

There are three fundamental approaches to textual criticism: eclecticism, stemmatics, and copy-text editing. Techniques from the biological discipline of cladistics are currently also being used to determine the relationships between manuscripts.

The phrase lower criticism is used to describe the contrast between textual criticism and "higher" criticism, which is the endeavor to establish the authorship, date, and place of composition of the original text.

Read more about Textual Criticism:  History, Basic Notions and Objectives, Process, Eclecticism, Copy-text Editing, Cladistics, Application of Textual Criticism To Religious Documents, Classical Texts, Legal Protection

Other articles related to "textual criticism, criticism, textual":

Frederic G. Kenyon - Works
1901 Handbook to the textual criticism of the New Testament (1st ed.) 1912 Handbook to the textual criticism of the New Testament (2nd ed.) 1914. 1951) 1933 Recent Developments in the Textual Criticism of the Greek Bible (Schweich Lectures for 1932) London Oxford University Press 1933-41 The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri ...
Caspar René Gregory - Life
... his studies at the University of Leipzig under Constantin von Tischendorf, to whose work on textual criticism of the New Testament he had been referred by his teacher, Ezra ... Gregory specialized in New Testament textual criticism ... in the research of New Testament manuscripts and in textual criticism of the New Testament ...
Linguistic Criticism
... Linguistic Criticism is probably the oldest form of biblical criticism or textual criticism to develop ... Other languages that are very important for linguistic criticism include Akkadian, Ugaritic, and Latin ... Linguistic criticism is not the same as textual criticism, though it does fall under that discipline ...
New Testament - Textual Variation
... Textual criticism deals with the identification and removal of transcription errors in the texts of manuscripts ... A similar type of textual criticism is applied to other ancient texts ... the original text of the New Testament books, some modern textual critics have identified sections as additions of material, centuries after the gospel was written ...

Famous quotes containing the word criticism:

    Parents sometimes feel that if they don’t criticize their child, their child will never learn. Criticism doesn’t make people want to change; it makes them defensive.
    Laurence Steinberg (20th century)