From an astronomical view, the equinoxes and solstices would be the middle of the respective seasons, but a variable seasonal lag means that the meteorological start of the season, which is based on average temperature patterns, occurs several weeks later than the start of the astronomical season. According to meteorologists,summer extends for the whole months of June, July, and August in the northern hemisphere and the whole months of December, January, and February in the southern hemisphere. Under meteorological definitions, all seasons are arbitrarily set to start at the beginning of a calendar month and end at the end of a month. This meteorological definition of summer also aligns with the commonly viewed notion of summer as the season with the longest (and warmest) days of the year, in which daylight predominates. The meteorological reckoning of seasons is used in Austria, Denmark and the former USSR; it is also used by many in the United Kingdom, where summer is thought of as extending from mid-May to mid-August. In Ireland, the summer months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are June, July and August. However, according to the Irish Calendar summer begins 1 May and ends 1 August. School textbooks in Ireland follow the cultural norm of summer commencing on 1 May rather than the meteorological definition of 1 June.
From the astronomical perspective, days continue to lengthen from equinox to solstice and summer days progressively shorten after the solstice, so meteorological summer encompasses the build-up to the longest day and a diminishing thereafter, with summer having many more hours of daylight than spring. Solstices and equinoxes are taken to mark the mid-points, not the beginnings, of the seasons. Midsummer takes place over the shortest night of the year, which is the summer solstice, or on a nearby date that varies with tradition.
The Western definition based on solstice to equinox is more frequently used where a temperature lag of up to half a season is common. In North America, summer is often the period from the summer solstice (usually June 20 or 21 in the Northern Hemisphere) to the autumn equinox. According to the American calendar, the U.S. summer season is commonly regarded as beginning on Memorial Day weekend (the last weekend in May) and ending on Labor Day weekend (the first weekend in September), more closely in line with the meteorological definition; the similar Canadian tradition starts summer on Victoria Day one week prior (although summer conditions vary widely across Canada's expansive territory) and ends, like the United States, on Labour Day.
In Chinese astronomy, summer starts on or around 5 May, with the jiéqì (solar term) known as lìxià (立夏), i.e. "establishment of summer", and it ends on or around 6 August.
In southern and southeast Asia, where the monsoon occurs, summer is more generally defined as lasting from March to May/early June, the warmest time of the year, ending with the onset of the monsoon rains.
Because the temperature lag is shorter in the oceanic temperate southern hemisphere most countries in this region, especially Australia and New Zealand, use the meteorological definition with summer starting on December 1 and ending on the last day of February.
Read more about this topic: Summer
Other articles related to "timing":
... Graham III, was the Director of Timing Scoring for the Indianapolis 500 from 1978-97 ... of Brownsburg, IN, Graham Created the 1st fully automatic electronic race timing and scoring system and introduced many of the timing-and-scoring procedures now used in American ...
Timing is the time when something happens or the spacing of events in time.
Timing may also refer to:
- Timing (comedy), use of rhythm, tempo and pausing to enhance comedy and humour
- Timing (linguistics), rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language
- Timing (music), ability to "keep time" accurately and to synchronise to an ensemble
- Color timing, photochemical process of altering and enhancing the color of an image
- Ignition timing, timing of piston and crankshaft so that a spark will occur near the end of the compression stroke
- Market timing, by attempting to predict future market price movements
- Timekeeping, the process of measuring the passage of time
- Synchronization, timing a process relative to another process
... Based on approximate estimate from playback of the vocal and piano reduction scores, total timing of the piece is as follows. ...
... the time to reinforcement delivery using a scalar-timing process ... This scalar-timing process rescales estimates for different values of the interval being timed ... Scalar-timing implies a constant coefficient of variation ...
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