Science

Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning (found, for example, in Aristotle), "science" refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained (see History and philosophy below). Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the words "science" and "philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a separate branch of philosophy. However, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science.

In modern use, "science" more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is "often treated as synonymous with 'natural and physical science', and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use." This narrower sense of "science" developed as scientists such as Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton began formulating laws of nature such as Newton's laws of motion. In this period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as "natural science". Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method, a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist was created by the naturalist-theologian William Whewell to distinguish those who sought knowledge on nature from those who sought knowledge on other disciplines. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science. Similarly, several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of "science", such as formal science and applied science.

Read more about Science:  Scientific Practice, Scientific Community

Other articles related to "science":

J. Robert Oppenheimer - Final Years
... and academics to establish what would eventually become the World Academy of Art and Science in 1960 ... Manifesto of 1955, nor, though invited, did he attend the first Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in 1957 ... stressed the difficulty of managing the power of knowledge in a world in which the freedom of science to exchange ideas was more and more hobbled by political concerns ...
Vannevar Bush Award
... The National Science Board established the Vannevar Bush Award (/væˈniːvər/ van-NEE-vər) in 1980 to honor Dr ... award recognizes an individual who, through public service activities in science and technology, has made an outstanding "contribution toward the welfare of mankind and the Nation." The ... behind the establishment of the National Science Foundation ...
Science and Society - Political Usage
... See also Politicization of science Many issues damage the relationship of science to the media and the use of science and scientific arguments by politicians ... or think tank makes it their only goal to cast doubt on supported science because it conflicts with political agendas ...
Vannevar Bush
... van-NEE-var March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator known for his work on analog computers, for his role as an initiator and administrator ... six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare ... War II, when he was in effect the first presidential science advisor ...
48th World Science Fiction Convention
... The 48th World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon), was ConFiction, which was held in The Hague, Netherlands 23rd-27 August 1990 at the Netherlands Congress Centre ... convention was one of the two Worldcons held in continental Europe, the other being the 28th World Science Fiction Convention held in West Germany ...

Famous quotes containing the word science:

    We said that the history of mankind depicts man; in the same way one can maintain that the history of science is science itself.
    Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe (1749–1832)

    Science has nothing to be ashamed of even in the ruins of Nagasaki. The shame is theirs who appeal to other values than the human imaginative values which science has evolved.
    Jacob Bronowski (1908–1974)

    What is done for science must also be done for art: accepting undesirable side effects for the sake of the main goal, and moreover diminishing their importance by making this main goal more magnificent. For one should reform forward, not backward: social illnesses, revolutions, are evolutions inhibited by a conserving stupidity.
    Robert Musil (1880–1942)