Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods. Climate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these elements and their variations over shorter periods.
A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface, and biosphere.
The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying animal species diversity and potential effects of climate changes. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
Paleoclimatology is the study of ancient climates. Since direct observations of climate are not available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in lake beds and ice cores, and biotic evidence such as tree rings and coral. Climate models are mathematical models of past, present and future climates. Climate change may occur over long and short timescales from a variety of factors; recent warming is discussed in global warming.
Other articles related to "climate":
... Climate data for Zhytomyr Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 5.0 (41.0) 5.0 (41.0) 12.0 (53.6) 22.0 (71.6) 27.0 (80.6) 29.0 (84.2) 32.0 (89.6) 31.0 (87.8) 27.0 (80.6) 21.0 ...
... Climate data for Waterloo Regional Airport Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Humidex 13.4 13.0 28.0 33.7 39.6 43.2 47.7 48.3 41.2 34.5. 64.1 Source Environment Canada Kitchener has a humid continental climate of the warm summer subtype (Dfb under the Köppen climate classification) there are large seasonal differences, usually very warm ...
... See also Climate models and Climatology Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice ... for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate ... All climate models balance, or very nearly balance, incoming energy as short wave (including visible) electromagnetic radiation to the earth with outgoing ...
... a statement on the global response to climate change ... The statement stresses that the scientific understanding of climate change had become sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action ... decrying "political assaults" against climate change scientists ...
... much like neighboring Kinshasa, features a tropical wet and dry climate ... Climate data for Brazzaville Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 34 (93) 35 (95) 37 (99) 35 (95) 36 (97) 34 (93) 32 (90) 34 (93) 35 (95) 36 (9 ...
Famous quotes containing the word climate:
“The climate of Ohio is perfect, considered as the home of an ideal republican people. Climate has much to do with national character.... A climate which permits labor out-of-doors every month in the year and which requires industry to secure comfortto provide food, shelter, clothing, fuel, etc.is the very climate which secures the highest civilization.”
—Rutherford Birchard Hayes (18221893)
“When we consider how much climate contributes to the happiness of our condition, by the fine sensation it excites, and the productions it is the parent of, we have reason to value highly the accident of birth in such a one as that of Virginia.”
—Thomas Jefferson (17431826)
“A positive learning climate in a school for young children is a composite of many things. It is an attitude that respects children. It is a place where children receive guidance and encouragement from the responsible adults around them. It is an environment where children can experiment and try out new ideas without fear of failure. It is an atmosphere that builds childrens self-confidence so they dare to take risks. It is an environment that nurtures a love of learning.”
—Carol B. Hillman (20th century)