Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods. Climate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these elements and their variations over shorter periods.
A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface, and biosphere.
The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system, in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying animal species diversity and potential effects of climate changes. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
Paleoclimatology is the study of ancient climates. Since direct observations of climate are not available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in lake beds and ice cores, and biotic evidence such as tree rings and coral. Climate models are mathematical models of past, present and future climates. Climate change may occur over long and short timescales from a variety of factors; recent warming is discussed in global warming.
Other articles related to "climate":
... of greenhouse gases in the developing world) signed a statement on the global response to climate change ... The statement stresses that the scientific understanding of climate change had become sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action ... members was published in Science magazine, decrying "political assaults" against climate change scientists ...
... Climate data for Waterloo Regional Airport Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Humidex 13.4 13.0 28.0 33.7 39.6 43.2 47.7 48.3 41.2 34.5 24.4 22.1 48.3 Record high °C (°F) 14 ... Canada Kitchener has a humid continental climate of the warm summer subtype (Dfb under the Köppen climate classification) there are large seasonal differences, usually very warm and humid summers and cold to ...
... neighboring Kinshasa, features a tropical wet and dry climate ... Climate data for Brazzaville Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 34 (93) 35 (95) 37 (99) 35 (95) 36 (97) 34 (93) 32 (90) 34 (93) 35 (95) 36 (97) 36 (97 ...
... See also Climate models and Climatology Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice ... They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate ... All climate models balance, or very nearly balance, incoming energy as short wave (including visible) electromagnetic radiation to the earth with outgoing energy as long wave (infrared ...
... Climate data for Zhytomyr Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 5.0 (41.0) 5.0 (41.0) 12.0 (53.6) 22.0 (71.6) 27.0 (80.6) 29.0 (84.2) 32.0 (89.6) 31.0 (87 ...
Famous quotes containing the word climate:
“Culture is the name for what people are interested in, their thoughts, their models, the books they read and the speeches they hear, their table-talk, gossip, controversies, historical sense and scientific training, the values they appreciate, the quality of life they admire. All communities have a culture. It is the climate of their civilization.”
—Walter Lippmann (18891974)
“Ghosts, we hope, may be always with usthat is, never too far out of the reach of fancy. On the whole, it would seem they adapt themselves well, perhaps better than we do, to changing world conditionsthey enlarge their domain, shift their hold on our nerves, and, dispossessed of one habitat, set up house in another. The universal battiness of our century looks like providing them with a propitious climate ...”
—Elizabeth Bowen (18991973)
“If often he was wrong and at times absurd,
To us he is no more a person
Now but a whole climate of opinion.”
—W.H. (Wystan Hugh)