Christoffel Symbols

In mathematics and physics, the Christoffel symbols, named for Elwin Bruno Christoffel (1829–1900), are numerical arrays of real numbers that describe, in coordinates, the effects of parallel transport in curved surfaces and, more generally, manifolds. As such, they are coordinate-space expressions for the Levi-Civita connection derived from the metric tensor. In a broader sense, the connection coefficients of an arbitrary (not necessarily metric) affine connection in a coordinate basis are also called Christoffel symbols. The Christoffel symbols may be used for performing practical calculations in differential geometry. For example, the Riemann curvature tensor can be expressed entirely in terms of the Christoffel symbols and their first partial derivatives.

At each point of the underlying n-dimensional manifold, for any local coordinate system, the Christoffel symbol is an array with three dimensions: n × n × n. Each of the n3 components is a real number.

Under linear coordinate transformations on the manifold, it behaves like a tensor, but under general coordinate transformations, it does not. In many practical problems, most components of the Christoffel symbols are equal to zero, provided the coordinate system and the metric tensor possess some common symmetries.

In general relativity, the Christoffel symbol plays the role of the gravitational force field with the corresponding gravitational potential being the metric tensor.

Read more about Christoffel SymbolsPreliminaries, Definition, Relationship To Index-free Notation, Covariant Derivatives of Tensors, Change of Variable, Applications To General Relativity

Other articles related to "christoffel symbols, symbol":

List Of Formulas In Riemannian Geometry - Christoffel Symbols, Covariant Derivative
... In a smooth coordinate chart, the Christoffel symbols of the first kind are given by and the Christoffel symbols of the second kind by Here is the inverse matrix ... Christoffel symbols satisfy the symmetry relation which is equivalent to the torsion-freeness of the Levi-Civita connection ... The contracting relations on the Christoffel symbols are given by and where
Christoffel Symbols - Applications To General Relativity
... The Christoffel symbols find frequent use in Einstein's theory of general relativity, where spacetime is represented by a curved 4-dimensional Lorentz ... spacetime in the presence of matter—contain the Ricci tensor, and so calculating the Christoffel symbols is essential ... the geodesic equations in which the Christoffel symbols explicitly appear ...
Mechanics Of Planar Particle Motion - Fictitious Forces in Curvilinear Coordinates
... are expressed in a curvilinear coordinate system, Christoffel symbols appear in the acceleration of a particle expressed in this coordinate system, as ... for example  or, in general,   in which the coefficients of the unit vectors are the Christoffel symbols for the coordinate system ... The general notation and formulas for the Christoffel symbols are    and the symbol is zero when all the indices are different ...

Famous quotes containing the word symbols:

    Many older wealthy families have learned to instill a sense of public service in their offspring. But newly affluent middle-class parents have not acquired this skill. We are using our children as symbols of leisure-class standing without building in safeguards against an overweening sense of entitlement—a sense of entitlement that may incline some young people more toward the good life than toward the hard work that, for most of us, makes the good life possible.
    David Elkind (20th century)