Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."

AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. There are subfields which are focused on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals. Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are an enormous number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others.

The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens—can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism, but has also suffered setbacks and, today, has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science.

Read more about Artificial IntelligenceHistory, Problems, Approaches, Tools, Evaluating Progress, Applications, Philosophy, Predictions and Ethics

Other articles related to "intelligence, artificial, artificial intelligence":

List Of Emerging Technologies - IT and Communications
... Interactive TV, 3D-TV, holographic cameras Ambient intelligence Theory Artificial brain Research Neurological disease's treatments, artificial intelligence Blue Brain ... Creating intelligent devices Progress in artificial intelligence, technological singularity, applications of artificial intelligence Atomtronics Theory ...
Artificial Intelligence - Predictions and Ethics
... Artificial Intelligence is a common topic in both science fiction and projections about the future of technology and society ... The existence of an artificial intelligence that rivals human intelligence raises difficult ethical issues, and the potential power of the technology inspires ... In fiction, Artificial Intelligence has appeared fulfilling many roles, including a servant (R2D2 in Star Wars), a law enforcer (K.I.T.T ...
List Of Natural Language Processing Toolkits - History of Natural Language Processing
... The test was introduced by Alan Turing in his 1950 paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," which opens with the words "I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?'" Universal ... a model of natural language understanding used in artificial intelligence systems ... introduced the model in 1969, in the early days of artificial intelligence ...
Time-keeping Systems In Games - Sub-types - Pausable Real-time
... gambits" system, which allows players to collect and apply preferences to the artificial intelligence routines of partner characters, who will perform certain actions in response ... and Secret of Mana also allowed adjustable artificial intelligence to take control during combat ... In Baldur's Gate's case, players also have the option to allow the artificial intelligence to take control during combat, though they can press the spacebar at any time ...
SHINE Expert System
... for knowledge-based systems and has been created as a product for research and development by the Artificial Intelligence Group, Information Systems Technology ... The system may be used to develop artificial intelligence applications as well as specialized tools for research efforts ... applications require a variety of software modules based on artificial intelligence concepts and advanced programming techniques ...

Famous quotes containing the words intelligence and/or artificial:

    I happen to feel that the degree of a person’s intelligence is directly reflected by the number of conflicting attitudes she can bring to bear on the same topic.
    Lisa Alther (b. 1944)

    Merely external emancipation has made of the modern woman an artificial being.... Now, woman is confronted with the necessity of emancipating herself from emancipation, if she really desires to be free.
    Emma Goldman (1869–1940)