Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a square checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.
Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, with the objective to 'checkmate' the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by the voluntary resignation of the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may also result in a draw in several ways, where neither player wins. The course of the game is divided into three phases: opening, middlegame, and endgame.
The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Viswanathan Anand. In addition to the World Championship, there are the Women's World Championship, the Junior World Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Correspondence Chess World Championship, the World Computer Chess Championship, and Blitz and Rapid World Championships. The Chess Olympiad is a popular competition among teams from different nations. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee and international chess competition is sanctioned by the World Chess Federation (FIDE), which adopted the now-standard Staunton chess set in 1924 for use in all official games. There are also many chess variants, with different rules, different pieces, and different boards.
Since the second half of the 20th century, computers have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where home computers can play chess at a very high level. In the past two decades computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame. The computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997.
Other articles related to "chess":
... As a child, he was a chess prodigy ... in solitary confinement, he claims to have maintained his sanity by playing chess against himself in his mind ... Sharansky beat the world chess champion Garry Kasparov in a simultaneous exhibition in Israel in 1996 ...
... The Italian Game is a family of chess openings beginning with the moves 1 ... Bc4 The Italian Game is one of the oldest recorded chess openings it occurs in the Göttingen manuscript and was developed by players such as Damiano and ... Italian is still popular in correspondence chess, where players are allowed access to published theory, and in games between amateurs ...
1995 in Yerevan) is considered to have been one of the greatest composers of chess endgame studies ... He was awarded the titles of International Judge of Chess Compositions in 1956 and International Grandmaster of Chess Composition in 1972, the first composer to receive this ... Kasparyan was also an active chess player, winning the Armenian championship ten times (from 1934 to 1956, including two ties with future World Champion Tigran Petrosian) and the Tiflis championship three times (193 ...
... Safvat (born 1931 in Tehran - death 2003 in Tehran) was an Iranian chess player ... He was the first official chess champion and national master of Iran ... He won four times Iranian Chess Championship (1956, 1957, 1959, 1965), and represented Iran in Chess Olympiads at Moscow 1956, Munich 1958, Varna 1962, Tel Aviv 1964, and ...
... For the more complicated game of chess, it appears the method was independently rediscovered later by the Kaissa team in the Soviet Union in the late 1960s, although not publicly ... Northwestern University program "Chess" in the early 1970s, and documented in 1977 in "Chess Skill in Man and Machine" ...
Famous quotes containing the word chess:
“The trick, which requires the combined skills of a tightrope walker and a cordon bleu chef frying a plain egg, is to take your [preteen] daughter seriously without taking everything she says and does every minute seriously.”
—Stella Chess (20th century)
“Work, as we usually think of it, is energy expended for a further end in view; play is energy expended for its own sake, as with childrens play, or as manifestation of the end or goal of work, as in playing chess or the piano. Play in this sense, then, is the fulfillment of work, the exhibition of what the work has been done for.”
—Northrop Frye (19121991)
“The chess pieces are the block alphabet which shapes thoughts; and these thoughts, although making a visual design on the chess-board, express their beauty abstractly, like a poem.... I have come to the personal conclusion that while all artists are not chess players, all chess players are artists.”
—Marcel Duchamp (18871968)