Ancient History - Study


A fundamental difficulty of studying ancient history is that recorded histories cannot document the entirety of human events, and only a fraction of those documents have survived into the present day. Furthermore, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history.

The Roman Empire was one of the ancient world's most literate cultures, but many works by its most widely read historians are lost. For example, Livy, a Roman historian who lived in the 1st century BC, wrote a history of Rome called Ab Urbe Condita (From the Founding of the City) in 144 volumes; only 35 volumes still exist, although short summaries of most of the rest do exist. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived.

Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world: archaeology and the study of source texts. Primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which often cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources.

Archaeological field surveys

Reasons that an area undergoes an archaeological field survey.

  • Artifacts found: Locals have picked up artifacts.
  • Literary sources: Old literary sources have provided archaeologists with clues about settlement locations that have not been archaeologically documented.
  • Oral sources: In many locations, local stories contain some hint of a greater past, and there is often some truth to them.
  • Local knowledge: In many cases, locals actually know where to find something that is of interest to archaeologists.
  • Previous surveys: In some places, a survey was carried out in the past, and is recorded in an obscure academic journal.
  • Previous excavations: Excavations carried out before the middle of the 20th century are notoriously poorly documented.
  • Lack of knowledge: Many areas of the world have little known about the nature and organisation of past human activity.

Read more about this topic:  Ancient History

Other articles related to "study":

History Of Anatomy - Early Modern Anatomy - 17th and 18th Centuries
... The study of anatomy flourished in the 17th and 18th centuries ... Because the study of anatomy concerned observation and drawings, the popularity of the anatomist was equal to the quality of his drawing talents, and one need not be an expert in Latin to take part ... to dissection during the course of their study - they had to go where a fresh body was available (e.g ...
... Onomastics or onomatology is the study of proper names of all kinds and the origins of names ... Toponymy or toponomastics, the study of place names, is one of the principal branches of onomastics ... Anthroponomastics is the study of personal names ...
... hence "insect" and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of insects, a branch of arthropodology, which in turn is a branch of biology ... more vague, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, land snails, and slugs ... are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect related inquiries is, by definition ...
Environmental Science - Components
... Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment ... Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical alterations in the environment ... Principal areas of study include soil contamination and water pollution ...
Environmental Science - Terminology
... and "ecology" are often used interchangeably, but technically, ecology refers only to the study of organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment ... involve purely chemical or public health issues (for example) ecologists would be unlikely to study ... of biological, chemical, and physical principles to the study of the physical environment and the solution of environmental problems, including subjects such as ...

Famous quotes containing the word study:

    To study history means submitting to chaos and nevertheless retaining faith in order and meaning. It is a very serious task, young man, and possibly a tragic one.
    Hermann Hesse (1877–1962)

    This place is the Devil, or at least his principal residence, they call it the University, but any other appellation would have suited it much better, for study is the last pursuit of the society; the Master eats, drinks, and sleeps, the Fellows drink, dispute and pun, the employments of the undergraduates you will probably conjecture without my description.
    George Gordon Noel Byron (1788–1824)

    The traveller who has gone to Italy to study the tactile values of Giotto, or the corruption of the Papacy, may return remembering nothing but the blue sky and the men and women who live under it.
    —E.M. (Edward Morgan)