A cluster of specifications closely related to XML have been developed, starting soon after the initial publication of XML 1.0. It is frequently the case that the term "XML" is used to refer to XML together with one or more of these other technologies which have come to be seen as part of the XML core.
- XML Namespaces enable the same document to contain XML elements and attributes taken from different vocabularies, without any naming collisions occurring. Although XML Namespaces are not part of the XML specification itself, virtually all XML software also supports XML Namespaces.
- XML Base defines the
xml:baseattribute, which may be used to set the base for resolution of relative URI references within the scope of a single XML element.
- The XML Information Set or XML infoset describes an abstract data model for XML documents in terms of information items. The infoset is commonly used in the specifications of XML languages, for convenience in describing constraints on the XML constructs those languages allow.
- xml:id Version 1.0 asserts that an attribute named
xml:idfunctions as an "ID attribute" in the sense used in a DTD.
- XPath defines a syntax named XPath expressions which identifies one or more of the internal components (elements, attributes, and so on) included in an XML document. XPath is widely used in other core-XML specifications and in programming libraries for accessing XML-encoded data.
- XSLT is a language with an XML-based syntax that is used to transform XML documents into other XML documents, HTML, or other, unstructured formats such as plain text or RTF. XSLT is very tightly coupled with XPath, which it uses to address components of the input XML document, mainly elements and attributes.
- XSL Formatting Objects, or XSL-FO, is a markup language for XML document formatting which is most often used to generate PDFs.
- XQuery is an XML-oriented query language strongly rooted in XPath and XML Schema. It provides methods to access, manipulate and return XML, and is mainly conceived as a query language for XML databases.
- XML Signature defines syntax and processing rules for creating digital signatures on XML content.
- XML Encryption defines syntax and processing rules for encrypting XML content.
Some other specifications conceived as part of the "XML Core" have failed to find wide adoption, including XInclude, XLink, and XPointer.
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