The von Mises yield criterion suggests that the yielding of materials begins when the second deviatoric stress invariant reaches a critical value. For this reason, it is sometimes called the -plasticity or flow theory. It is part of a plasticity theory that applies best to ductile materials, such as metals. Prior to yield, material response is assumed to be elastic.
In materials science and engineering the von Mises yield criterion can be also formulated in terms of the von Mises stress or equivalent tensile stress, a scalar stress value that can be computed from the stress tensor. In this case, a material is said to start yielding when its von Mises stress reaches a critical value known as the yield strength, . The von Mises stress is used to predict yielding of materials under any loading condition from results of simple uniaxial tensile tests. The von Mises stress satisfies the property that two stress states with equal distortion energy have equal von Mises stress.
Because the von Mises yield criterion is independent of the first stress invariant, it is applicable for the analysis of plastic deformation for ductile materials such as metals, as the onset of yield for these materials does not depend on the hydrostatic component of the stress tensor.
Although formulated by Maxwell in 1865, it is generally attributed to Richard Edler von Mises (1913). Tytus Maksymilian Huber (1904), in a paper in Polish, anticipated to some extent this criterion. This criterion is also referred to as the Maxwell–Huber–Hencky–von Mises theory.
Read more about Von Mises Yield Criterion: Mathematical Formulation, Reduced Von Mises Equation For Different Stress Conditions, Physical Interpretation of The Von Mises Yield Criterion, Comparison With Tresca Yield Criterion
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