**Mathematical Formulations**

The single vegetative obstruction model is formally expressed as,

where, *A* = The Attenuation due to vegetation. Unit: decibel(dB).

*d* = Depth of foliage. Unit: Meter (m).

= Specific attenuation for short vegetative paths. Unit: decibel per meter (dB/m).

*R*_{i} = The initial slope of the attenuation curve.

*R*_{f} = The final slope of the attenuation curve.

*f* = The frequency of operations. Unit: gigahertz (GHz).

*k* = Empirical constant.

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