Siegel, a surname, is associated with two ethnic groups.

As a Jewish surname Siegel (סג"ל) could be an acronym of Segan Levi (סגן לוי), meaning "Assistant Levite", or Segan la-Cohen (סגן לכהן), meaning "assistant to the Cohen/priest". It signifies membership in the Hebrew Tribe of Levi (assistants to the Hebrew Priests in Biblical Times) as a Levi of the second rank. It is common among Ashkenazi Jews who are Levites. Alternate spellings include Segal, Siegal, Segel, Chagall and others.

As a German surname it can be traced to 12th century Bavaria and was used by people who made wax seals for or sealed official documents (a Siegelbeamter). Alternate spellings include Sigel, Sigl, Siegl, and others. "Siegel" is also the modern German word for seal. The surname may derive from Sigel, referring to Sól (Sun), the goddess of the sun in Germanic mythology (Siȝel or sigel in Old English / Anglo-Saxon).

Variants may include Sigl and Sigel.

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