In quantum physics, the scattering amplitude is the amplitude of the outgoing spherical wave relative to the incoming plane wave in the stationary-state scattering process. The latter is described by the wavefunction
where is the coordinate vector; ; is the incoming plane wave with the wave-vector along the axis; is the outgoing spherical wave; is the scattering angle; and is the scattering amplitude. The dimension of the scattering amplitude is length.
The differential cross-section is given as
In the low-energy regime the scattering amplitude is determined by the scattering length.
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