Pachycephalosauria ( /ˌpækɨˌsɛfəlɵˈsɔriə/; from Greek παχυκέφαλοσαυρος for 'thick headed lizards') is a clade of ornithischian dinosaurs. Well-known genera include Pachycephalosaurus, Stegoceras, Stygimoloch, and Dracorex. Most lived during the Late Cretaceous Period, in what is now North America and Asia. They were all bipedal, herbivorous/omnivorous animals with thick skulls. In some fossils, the skull roof is domed and several inches thick; in others it is flat or wedge-shaped. While traditionally regarded as distinct species or even families, the flat-headed pachycephalosaurs may actually represent juveniles of dome-headed adults. The domes were often surrounded by nodes and/or spikes.
Candidates for the earliest known pachycephalosaur include Ferganocephale adenticulatum from the Middle Jurassic Period of what is now Kyrgyzstan and Stenopelix valdensis from the Early Cretaceous Period of what is now Germany, although Sullivan doubted that either of these species are pachycephalosaurs.