In the broadcasting industry (especially in North America), an owned-and-operated station (frequently abbreviated as O&O) usually refers to a television station or radio station that is owned by the network with which it is associated. This distinguishes such a station from an affiliate, whose ownership lies elsewhere other than the network it is linked to.
For example: in the Boston television market, CBS Corporation-owned WBZ-TV carries CBS programming, while News Corporation-owned WFXT-TV carries programming from Fox, another News Corporation subsidiary. Therefore, both WBZ and WFXT are considered owned-and-operated stations. On the other hand, WCVB-TV and WHDH-TV carry ABC and NBC programming respectively, but neither shares ownership ties with its parent network. As such, these two stations are considered affiliates.
The concept of O&O is more clearly defined in North America (and to some extent, several other countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia and Brazil), where network-owned stations had historically been the exception rather than the rule. In such places, broadcasting licenses are generally issued on a local (rather than national) basis, and there is (or was) some sort of regulatory mechanism in place to prevent any company (including a broadcasting network) from owning stations in every market in the country. In other parts of the world, many television networks were given national broadcasting licenses at launch; as such, they have traditionally been mostly (or entirely) composed of O&Os, rendering a separate notion for such a concept redundant.
Famous quotes containing the word station:
“Say first, of God above, or Man below,
What can we reason, but from what we know?
Of Man what see we, but his station here,
From which to reason, or to which refer?
Thro worlds unnumberd tho the God be known,
Tis ours to trace him only in our own.
—Alexander Pope (16881744)