Neural Crest

Neural crest cells are a transient, multipotent, migratory cell population unique to vertebrates that gives rise to a diverse cell lineage including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.

After gastrulation, neural crest cells are specified at the border of the neural plate and the non-neural ectoderm. During neurulation, the borders of the neural plate, also known as the neural folds, converge at the dorsal midline to form the neural tube. Subsequently, neural crest cells from the roof plate of the neural tube undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, delaminating from the neuroepithelium and migrating through the periphery where they differentiate into varied cell types. The emergence of neural crest was important in vertebrate evolution because many of its structural derivatives are defining features of the vertebrate clade.

Underlying the development of neural crest is a gene regulatory network, described as a set of interacting signals, transcription factors, and downstream effector genes that confer cell characteristics such as multipotency and migratory capabilities. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of neural crest formation is important for our knowledge of human disease because of its contributions to multiple cell lineages. Abnormalities in neural crest development cause neurocristopathies, which include conditions such as frontonasal dysplasia, Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, and DiGeorge syndrome.

Therefore, defining the mechanisms of neural crest development may reveal key insights into vertebrate evolution and neurocristopathies.

Read more about Neural CrestHistory, Induction, Cell Lineages, Evolution, Neural Crest Derivatives

Other articles related to "neural crest":

Parafollicular Cell
... In a series of elegant experiments, Nicole LeDouarin (ref), transplanted neural crest cells from quail, with unique and easily identified nuclei, into non-quail neural crest ... body and concluded that C cells migrate during embryologic development from the neural crest ... Parafollicular cells themselves are derived from Neural Crest cells ...
Scott E. Fraser - Publications
... M Fraser, SE Title VITAL DYE ANALYSIS OF CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELL-MIGRATION IN THE MOUSE EMBRYO Source DEVELOPMENT, 116 (2) 297- OCT 1992, Times Cited 269 Author(s) Krull, CE Lansford, R ...
Persistent Truncus Arteriosus - Causes
... The neural crest, specifically a population known as the cardiac neural crest, directly contributes to the aorticopulmonary septum ... Microablation of the cardiac neural crest in developing chick embryos and genetic anomalies affecting this population of cells in rodents results in persistent truncus arteriosus ... Numerous perturbations affecting the cardiac neural crest have been associated with persistent truncus arteriosus, some of which include growth factors (fibroblast growth factor 8 and bone morphogenetic ...
Neural Crest Derivatives
... Endocrine Cells enterochromaffin, parafollicular cells of the thyroid, carotid body type I/II, adrenal medulla Peripheral nervous system Sensory neurons and glia of the dorsal root ganglia, cephalic ganglia (VII and in part, V, IX, and X), Rohon-Beard cells, some Merkel cells in the whisker, Satellite glial cells of all autonomic and sensory ganglia, Schwann cells of all peripheral nerves. ...

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