Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 7 - Function


SMAD7 inhibits TGF-β signaling by preventing formation of Smad2/Smad4 complexes which initiate the TGF-β signaling. It interacts with activated TGF-β type I receptor therefore block the association, phosphorylation and activation of Smad2. By occupying type I receptors for Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), it also plays a role in negative feedback of these pathways.

Upon TGF- β treatment, Smad7 binds to discrete regions of Pellino-1 via distinct regions of the Smad MH2 domains. The interaction block formation of the IRAK1-mediated IL-1R/TLR signaling complex therefore abrogates NF-κB activity, which subsequently causes reduced expression of pro-inflammatory genes.

While Smad7 is induced by TGF-β, it is also induced by other stimuli, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Therefore it provides a cross-talk between TGF-β signaling and other cellular signaling pathways.

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