Under the Ancien Régime, the court title of Monsieur referred to the next living brother of the King of France.
Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon (1555–1584), was the first notable royalty to assume the title without the use of an adjoining proper name. In 1576, Monsieur pressured his brother King Henry III of France into signing the Edict of Beaulieu and effectively ending the Fifth Religious War of France. The resulting peace became popularly known as the Peace of Monsieur.
The title was later assumed by Gaston, Duke of Orléans, brother of Louis XIII, and then Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, brother of Louis XIV. From 1643 to 1660, while both princes were alive, Philippe was commonly known as le Petit Monsieur, while Gaston, his uncle, was known as le Grand Monsieur.
For over seventy years, from 1701 to 1774, the title had no living representatives in the French court, as Philippe of France, died in 1701 and Louis XV was the youngest of the sons of Louis of France, Duke of Burgundy and at the time of ascension to the throne in 1715 had no brothers.
The title was restored in 1775 for Louis Stanislas Xavier, Count of Provence, the oldest surviving brother of the reigning Louis XVI and the future Louis XVIII. After his coronation in 1814, the title passed to Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, his younger brother. Charles Philippe, who led the ultras during the Bourbon Restoration and became King Charles X in 1824, was the last royal sibling to officially hold the title of Monsieur. His successor, Louis-Philippe I, the next and last king to rule France, had lost both his brothers, Louis Charles and Antoine Philippe, many years before when he overtook the throne.
A fuller list of those who have been known by this title includes:
- Charles, Duke of Orléans (1559–1560)
- Henri, Duke of Anjou (1560–1574)
- François, Duke of Anjou (1555–1584)
- Gaston, Duke of Orléans (1611–1643)
- Philippe, Duke of Orléans (1643–1701)
- Louis Stanislas, Count of Provence (1774–1793)
- Charles Philippe, Count of Artois (1795–1824)
Read more about this topic: Monsieur
Famous quotes containing the word history:
“The history of the Victorian Age will never be written: we know too much about it.”
—Lytton Strachey (18801932)
“The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.”
—Karl Marx (18181883)
“The greatest horrors in the history of mankind are not due to the ambition of the Napoleons or the vengeance of the Agamemnons, but to the doctrinaire philosophers. The theories of the sentimentalist Rousseau inspired the integrity of the passionless Robespierre. The cold-blooded calculations of Karl Marx led to the judicial and business-like operations of the Cheka.”
—Aleister Crowley (18751947)