Marine Isotopic Stage 11
Marine Isotope Stage 11 or MIS 11 is the interglacial period between 424,000 and 374,000 years ago. It corresponds to the geological Hoxnian Stage.
Interglacial periods which occurred during Pleistocene times have been recently put under investigation, in order to better understand our present and future climates. In fact, paleoclimatic interpretations often depends on observations drawn from the study of modern/historical processes. In order to better estimate the ”natural range” of climatically important mechanisms, it seems crucial to attempt detailed comparisons of the present interglacial (i.e., the Holocene) with previous warm periods of the Quaternary, such as Marine isotopic stage 11. Similar orbital configurations and comparable atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (considering only the period before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, i.e. 1800 AD ca.) have led to the suggestion that MIS 11 is a suitable, possibly the best, geological analogue for the natural development of Holocene and future climate. Another candidate was MIS 5, but several characteristics do not fit the present conditions. MIS 11 represents the longest and warmest interglacial interval of the last 500 kyr. In fact, it shows the highest-amplitude deglacial warming in the last 5 Myr and possibly lasted twice the other interglacial stages. MIS 11 is characterized by overall warm sea-surface temperatures in high latitudes, strong thermohaline circulation, unusual blooms of calcareous plankton in high latitudes, higher sea level than the present, coral reef expansion resulting in enlarged accumulation of neritic carbonates, and overall poor pelagic carbonate preservation and strong dissolution in certain areas.
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