Fully Fashioned Knitting


Fully fashioned knitting machines are flat knitting machines that produce custom pre-shaped pieces of a knitted garment. Instead of knitting a whole rectangular sheet of fabric, instructions from a knit pattern on a punch card or computer file guide a fully fashioned knitting machine's needles to add or drop stitches to create custom two-dimensional shapes appropriate to the desired finished garment structure. The pieces emerge from the machine ready to be sewn together.

Fully fashioned knitting cuts down on the amount of material required to make a garment by eliminating selvage, the remnants that would be left after cutting from a rectangular fabric sheet. For example, a sweater requires at least four pieces of fabric: two sleeves, the front piece, and the back piece. Prior to fully fashioned machine techniques, a full sheet of material would have to be produced, each of the four pieces would be cut out, and the remaining fabric would be discarded. With full-fashioning, the machine produces only the four required pieces.

The necessary techniques for changing the fabric width or diameter are achieved by:

  1. changing knit structure (e.g. rib to interlock)
  2. varying the structural elements (stitch length, weft insertion, knit, tuck, float)
  3. shaping through loop transfer
  4. wale fashioning by 'needle parking,' and
  5. segmented takedown for varying rates of takedown across the width of the fabric.

These knit options above may also be used to change the structure of each piece to create limited curvature (such as convexity at the bust of a sweater) in the relatively two-dimensional output. A new generation of fully fashioned machines, called complete garment knitting machines, output seamless three-dimensional garments by knitting connected tubular forms.

Knitting
Tools and materials
  • Knitting needle
  • Knitting needle cap
  • Needle gauge
  • List of yarns for crochet and knitting
  • Row counter
  • Stitch holder
Yarn styles
  • BouclĂ©
  • Eyelash
  • Novelty
  • Variegated
Yarn brands
  • Coats PLC
  • Lion Brand
  • Eisaku Noro Company
Styles
  • Circular
  • Combined knitting
  • Continental knitting
  • English knitting
  • Flat
  • Warp knitting
  • Weft knitting
Stitches
  • Decrease
  • Dip stitch
  • Elongated stitch
  • Increase
  • Plaited stitch
  • Yarn over
Techniques
  • Basketweave
  • Bead knitting
  • Bias knitting
  • Binding off
  • Bobble
  • Brioche knitting
  • Buttonhole
  • Cables
  • Casting on
  • Double knitting
  • Drop-stitch knitting
  • Entrelac
  • Faggoting
  • Finger knitting
  • Gather
  • Grafting
  • Hemming
  • Lace
  • Medallion knitting
  • Picking up stitches
  • Pleat
  • Ribbing
  • Shadow knitting
  • Short row
  • Slip-stitch knitting
  • Spool knitting
  • Three needle bindoff
  • Tuck
  • Uneven knitting
  • Weaving
  • Welting
Patterns
  • Aran
  • Argyle
  • Fair Isle
  • Intarsia
Machine knitting
  • Complete garment knitting
  • Fully fashioned knitting
  • Knitting machine
  • Knitting Nancy
  • Stocking frame
  • William Lee
Knitters and
designers
  • Nicky Epstein
  • Kaffe Fassett
  • Knitters in literature
  • Marianne Kinzel
  • Shannon Okey
  • Stephanie Pearl-McPhee
  • Alice Starmore
  • Debbie Stoller
  • Meg Swansen
  • Barbara G. Walker
  • Elizabeth Zimmermann
Organizations
  • British Hand Knitting Confederation
  • I Knit London
  • Knitting clubs
  • Revolutionary Knitting Circle
  • Stitch 'n Bitch
  • World Wide Knit in Public Day
Related
  • Basic knitted fabrics
  • Blocking
  • Dye lot
  • Gauge
  • History
  • Knitta
  • Knitty
  • Knitted fabric
  • Knitting abbreviations
  • Selvage
  • Steek
  • Yarn bombing

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    It is impossible for a stranger traveling through the United States to tell from the appearance of the people or the country whether he is in Toledo, Ohio, or Portland, Oregon. Ninety million Americans cut their hair in the same way, eat each morning exactly the same breakfast, tie up the small girls’ curls with precisely the same kind of ribbon fashioned into bows exactly alike; and in every way all try to look and act as much like all the others as they can.
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