Foreign Relations of Libya Under Muammar Gaddafi - Europe

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
Belarus 1992 See Belarus–Libya relations
  • Belarus has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in Minsk.
  • Since the Lockerbie bombing, Belarus has been one of the few European nations to maintain diplomatic relations with Libya.
Bulgaria See Foreign relations of Bulgaria

Relations with Bulgaria have been troublesome after the a group of Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor were accused of infecting Libyan children with HIV when they worked at a Libyan hospital; the nurses were sentenced to death in a Libyan court, but the death sentences were ultimately commuted and the Bulgarian nurses and Palestinian doctor were sent back to Bulgaria.

Croatia See Croatia–Libya relations
Cyprus 1960s See Cyprus–Libya relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Libya
Czech Republic 1993 See Czech Republic – Libya relations
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in Prague.
  • The Czech Republic imposed sanctions on Libya in 1997 under a United Nations resolution following the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. This was lifted in 2006 by Czech President Václav Klaus.
Denmark See Denmark – Libya relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Denmark has a royal consualte in Tripoli, Libya.
France See France–Libya relations

Libya developed particularly close relations with France after the June 1967 War, when France relaxed its arms embargo on nonfront-line Middle East combatants and agreed to sell weapons to the Libyans. In 1974 Libya and France signed an agreement whereby Libya exchanged a guaranteed oil supply for technical assistance and financial cooperation. By 1976, however, Libya began criticizing France as an "arms merchant" because of its willingness to sell weapons to both sides in the Middle East conflict. Libya later criticized France for its willingness to sell arms to Egypt. Far more serious was Libya's dissatisfaction with French military intervention in the Western Sahara, Chad, and Zaire. In 1978 Gaddafi noted that although economic relations were good, political relations were not, and he accused France of having reverted to a colonialist policy that former French president Charles de Gaulle had earlier abandoned.

In the 1980s, Libyan-French discord centered on the situation in Chad. As mentioned, the two countries found themselves supporting opposite sides in the Chadian Civil War. In late 1987, there were some French troops in Chad, but French policy did not permit its forces to cross the sixteenth parallel. Thus, direct clashes with Libyan soldiers seemed unlikely.

On 10 March 2011, France was the first country in the world to recognise the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya, in the context of the Libyan civil war against Muammar Gaddafi.

Germany See Germany–Libya relations

Germany is represented in Libya with an embassy in Tripoli, while Libya has an embassy in Berlin. The relationship between these countries was tense in the late 1980s following a bombing incident, but has improved since with increasingly close co-operation especially on economic matters.

On 13 June 2011, Germany began to recognize the National Transitional Council as the sole legitimate government of Libya.

Greece See Foreign relations of Greece
Hungary
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tripoli. Since Libyan civil war the staff of Hungary’s Tripoli embassy had stood their ground in representing during the civil war situation the interests of the European Union, the United States, Greece, Croatia, Canada and Italy, too. On 24 August 2011 the Hungarian government recognised the National Transitional Council (NTC) as the legitimate representative of Libya.
  • Libya has an embassy in Budapest.
Italy See Foreign relations of Italy
Malta See Libya–Malta relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations soon after Malta's independence.
  • Both countries had very close ties and cooperation during Dom Mintoff's governments.
  • Libya has an embassy in Valletta.
  • Malta has an embassy in Tripoli.
Russia See Libya–Russia relations
  • Russia has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in Moscow.
Serbia 1955 See Libya–Serbia relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Since 1963, Serbia has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Libya
Turkey 1955 See Libya–Turkey relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Ankara, and a general consulate in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tripoli and a general consulate in Benghazi.
  • Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Libya
Switzerland See Libya–Switzerland relations
  • Libya had an embassy in Bern
  • Switzerland had an embassy in Tripoli

Relations were severed in 2009, Gaddafi publicly called for the dissolution of Switzerland.

United Kingdom See Libya – United Kingdom relations
  • Libya has an embassy in London
  • The United Kingdom had an embassy in Tripoli

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