Energy Conversion Efficiency - Fuel Heating Values and Efficiency

Fuel Heating Values and Efficiency

In Europe the usable energy content of fuel is typically calculated using the lower heating value (LHV) of that fuel, which definition assumes that the water vapor produced during fuel combustion (oxidation), remains gaseous, and is not condensed to liquid water so the latent heat of vaporization of that water is not usable. Using the LHV, a condensing boiler can achieve a "heating efficiency" in excess of 100% ( this does not violate the first law of thermodynamics as long as the LHV convention is understood, but does cause confusion). This is because the apparatus recovers part of the heat of vaporization, which is not included in the definition of the lower heating value of fuel. In the U.S. and elsewhere, the higher heating value (HHV) is used, which includes the latent heat for condensing the water vapor, and thus the thermodynamic maximum of 100% efficiency cannot be exceeded with HHV's use.

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