Discrete Fourier Transform

In mathematics, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) converts a finite list of equally-spaced samples of a function into the list of coefficients of a finite combination of complex sinusoids, ordered by their frequencies, that has those same sample values. It can be said to convert the sampled function from its original domain (often time or position along a line) to the frequency domain.

The input samples are complex numbers (in practice, usually real numbers), and the output coefficients are complex too. The frequencies of the output sinusoids are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency, whose corresponding period is the length of the sampling interval. The combination of sinusoids obtained through the DFT is therefore periodic with that same period. The DFT differs from the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT) in that its input and output sequences are both finite; it is therefore said to be the Fourier analysis of finite-domain (or periodic) discrete-time functions.

The DFT is the most important discrete transform, used to perform Fourier analysis in many practical applications. In digital signal processing, the function is any quantity or signal that varies over time, such as the pressure of a sound wave, a radio signal, or daily temperature readings, sampled over a finite time interval (often defined by a window function). In image processing, the samples can be the values of pixels along a row or column of a raster image. The DFT is also used to efficiently solve partial differential equations, and to perform other operations such as convolutions or multiplying large integers.

Since it deals with a finite amount of data, it can be implemented in computers by numerical algorithms or even dedicated hardware. These implementations usually employ efficient fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms; so much so that the terms "FFT" and "DFT" are often used interchangeably. The terminology is further blurred by the (now rare) synonym finite Fourier transform for the DFT, which apparently predates the term "fast Fourier transform" but has the same initialism.

Read more about Discrete Fourier Transform:  Definition, Generalized DFT (shifted and Non-linear Phase), Multidimensional DFT, Applications, Some Discrete Fourier Transform Pairs, Alternatives

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