Cold - Notable Cold Locations and Objects

Notable Cold Locations and Objects

  • The coldest known temperature ever achieved is a state of matter called the Bose–Einstein condensate which was first theorized to exist by Satyendra Nath Bose in 1924 and first created by Eric Cornell, Carl Wieman, and co-workers at JILA on June 5, 1995. They did this by cooling a dilute vapor consisting of approximately two thousand rubidium-87 atoms to below 170 nK (one nK or nano K is a billionith (10^-9) of a Kelvin) using a combination of laser cooling (a technique that won its inventors Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William D. Phillips the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics) and magnetic evaporative cooling.
  • The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known natural location in the universe, with a temperature that is estimated at 1 K (kelvin) (−272.15 °C/−457.87 °F).
  • Herschel Space Observatory instruments and detectors are kept at temperatures below 2 K, using a large helium tank for cooling.
  • Absent any other source of heat, the temperature of the Universe is roughly 2.725 kelvin, due to the Cosmic microwave background radiation, a remnant of the big bang.
  • Neptune's moon Triton has a surface temperature of −235 °C (−390 °F).
  • Uranus with a black-body temperature of 58.2 K (-215.0 °C, -354.9 °F).
  • Saturn with a black-body temperature of 81.1 K (-192.0 °C, -313.7 °F).
  • Mercury, despite being close to the Sun, is actually cold during its night, with a temperature of about −170 °C (−275 °F). Mercury is cold during its night because it has no atmosphere to trap in heat from the Sun.
  • Jupiter with a black-body temperature of 110.0 K (-163.2 °C, -261.67 °F).
  • Mars with a black-body temperature of 210.1 K (-63.05 °C, -81.49 °F).
  • The coldest continent on Earth is Antarctica. The coldest place on Earth is the Antarctic Plateau, an area of Antarctica around the South Pole that has an altitude of around 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). The lowest reliably measured temperature on Earth of 183.9 K (-89.2 °C, -128.6 °F) was recorded there at Vostok Station on 21 July 1983 (See List of weather records).

Read more about this topic:  Cold

Famous quotes containing the words notable, cold and/or objects:

    Every notable advance in technique or organization has to be paid for, and in most cases the debit is more or less equivalent to the credit. Except of course when it’s more than equivalent, as it has been with universal education, for example, or wireless, or these damned aeroplanes. In which case, of course, your progress is a step backwards and downwards.
    Aldous Huxley (1894–1963)

    Knighterrantry is a most chuckleheaded trade, and it is tedious hard work, too, but I begin to see that there is money in it, after all, if you have luck. Not that I would ever engage in it, as a business, for I wouldn’t. No sound and legitimate business can be established on a basis of speculation. A successful whirl in the knighterrantry line—now what is it when you blow away the nonsense and come down to the cold facts? It’s just a corner in pork, that’s all.
    Mark Twain [Samuel Langhorne Clemens] (1835–1910)

    Women have seldom sufficient employment to silence their feelings; a round of little cares, or vain pursuits frittering away all strength of mind and organs, they become naturally only objects of sense.
    Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797)