Chaturanga (Sanskrit: चतुरङ्ग; caturaṅga), catur, is an ancient Indian game that is the common ancestor of the games of chess, shogi, makruk, xiangqi and janggi. It is said by some to be invented by Sessa (controversial).
Chaturanga developed in Gupta India around the 6th century A.D. In the 7th century, it was adopted as shatranj in Sassanid Persia, which in turn was the form that brought chess to late-medieval Europe.
The exact rules of chaturanga are not known. Chess historians suppose that the game had similar rules to those of its successor shatranj. In particular, there is uncertainty as to the moves of the Gaja (elephant), the precursor of the Bishop in modern chess.