Ecological Systems Theory
Urie Bronfenbrenner is generally regarded as one of the world's leading scholars to focus on the interplay between research and policy on child development. Bronfenbrenner suggests child development research is better informed when institutional policies encourage studies within natural settings and theory finds greater practical application when contextually relevant. This perspective is well defined by Bronfenbrenner, who states, "...basic science needs public policy even more than public policy needs basic science" (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, p. 8, italics in original). It is from this vantage point that Bronfenbrenner conceives his primary contribution, Ecological Systems Theory, in which he delineates four types of nested systems. He calls these:
- the microsystem (such as the family or classroom);
- the mesosystem (which is two microsystems in interaction);
- the exosystem (external environments which indirectly influence development, e.g., parental workplace);
- and the macrosystem (the larger socio-cultural context).
He later adds a fifth system, called the Chronosystem (the evolution of the four other systems over time).
Read more about this topic: Urie Bronfenbrenner
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Famous quotes containing the words theory, ecological and/or systems:
“The weakness of the man who, when his theory works out into a flagrant contradiction of the facts, concludes So much the worse for the facts: let them be altered, instead of So much the worse for my theory.”
—George Bernard Shaw (18561950)
“The hatred of the youth culture for adult society is not a disinterested judgment but a terror-ridden refusal to be hooked into the, if you will, ecological chain of breathing, growing, and dying. It is the demand, in other words, to remain children.”
—Midge Decter (b. 1927)
“I am beginning to suspect all elaborate and special systems of education. They seem to me to be built up on the supposition that every child is a kind of idiot who must be taught to think.”
—Anne Sullivan (18661936)