Tone sandhi is a process whereby adjacent tones undergo dramatic alteration in connected speech. Similar to other Northern Wu dialects, Shanghainese is characterized by two forms of tone sandhi: a word tone sandhi and a phrasal tone sandhi.
Word tone sandhi in Shanghainese can be described as left-prominent and is characterized by a dominance of the first syllable over the contour of the entire tone domain. As a result, the underlying tones of syllables other than the leftmost syllable, have no effect on the tone contour of the domain. The pattern is generally described as tone spreading (T1-4) or tone shifting (T5, except for 4- and 5-syllable compounds, which can undergo spreading or shifting). The table below illustrates possible tone combinations.
|Tone||One syllable||Two syllables||Three syllables||Four syllables||Five syllables|
|T1||52||55 22||55 44 22||55 44 33 22||55 44 33 33 22|
|T2||34||33 44||33 44 22||33 44 33 22||33 44 33 33 22|
|T3||14||11 44||11 44 11||11 44 33 11||11 44 33 22 11|
|T4||44||33 44||33 44 22||33 44 33 22||33 44 33 22 22|
|T5||24||11 24||11 11 24||11 22 22 24
22 44 33 11
|11 11 11 11 24
22 44 33 22 11
As an example, in isolation, the two syllables of the word for China are pronounced with T1 and T4: /tsʊ̆ŋ52/ and /kwə̆ʔ44/. However, when pronounced in combination, T1 from /tsʊ̆ŋ/ spreads over the compound resulting in the following pattern /tsʊ̆ŋ55kwə̆ʔ22/. Similarly, the syllables in a common expression for foolish have the following underlying phonemic and tonal representations: /zə̆ʔ24/ (T5), /sɛ̝52/ (T1), and /ti34/ (T2). However, the syllables in combination exhibit the T5 shifting pattern where the first-syllable T5 shifts to the last syllabe in the domain: /zə̆ʔ11sɛ̝11
Other articles related to "tone sandhi, sandhi, tones, tone":
... The most important manifestation of tone sandhi in Mandarin is the change of a T3 syllable to T2 when followed by another T3 syllable (T3 + T3 → T2 + T3) ... Four common words with more complicated tone sandhi (also ignored in the spelling) are mentioned below under Exceptions ...
... Mandarin features four sandhi tone rules ... When there are two 3rd tones in a row, the first one becomes 2nd tone, and the second one becomes a half-third tone ... The neutral tone is pronounced "low" when following the 1st, 2nd, and 4th tones, and pronounced "high" following the 3rd tone ...
... Sandhi in Wu dialects tends to be fairly complex as compared to Mandarin ... syllable changing from (523) to (52) in the case of the fourth tone or from (13) to (11) with the second tone ... Tone sandhi for Changzhou dialect 1st 3rd 4th 6th 2nd 5th 7th first 553 ... third 532 ... fourth 555. 5555 ...
... rules which do not apply to other Chinese characters When in front of a 4th tone syllable, "一" becomes 2nd tone ... yídìng ) When in front of a non-4th tone syllable, "一" becomes 4th tone ... (1st tone)：一天 (yītiān → yìtiān ) ex ...
... Never do homework den (2 beats with shifts in tone sandhi, tone 2) indicating replacement of "所以") kena get scolding lor ... that's why (therefore) I got a scolding Never do homework (pause) den (2 beats with shifts in tone sandhi, tone 2) indicating replacement of "然后") kena scolding lor ... scolding after that Never do homework den (1 beat with no shift in tone sandhi, indicating "才") kena scolding lor ...
Famous quotes containing the word tone:
“We often contradict an opinion when it is actually only the tone with which it was put forward that is uncongenial to us.”
—Friedrich Nietzsche (18441900)