The Puritans were a significant grouping of English Protestants in the 16th century, and from 1630 to 1660 in the 17th century, including, but not also limited to, English Calvinists. Puritanism in this sense was founded by some Marian exiles from the clergies shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, as an activist movement within the Church of England. Puritans were blocked from changing the established church from within, and severely restricted in England by laws controlling the practice of religion, but their views were taken by the emigration of congregations to the Netherlands and later New England, and by evangelical clergy to Ireland and later into Wales, and were spread into lay society by preaching and parts of the educational system, particularly certain colleges of the University of Cambridge.
Puritans took distinctive views on clerical dress. They also opposed the Episcopal system after the 1619 conclusions of the Synod of Dort were resisted by English bishops. Puritans felt that the English Reformation was not sufficient, and still believed that the Church of England was tolerant of Catholic Church practices. They formed religious groups advocating a greater “purity” of worship and doctrine. They also desired greater personal and group piety. They largely adopted Sabbatarian views in the 17th century, and were influenced by millennialism. The Puritans adopted a Reformed theology and became in that sense Calvinists. Criticism of Zwingli and Calvin distinguished some Puritan beliefs from orthodox Calvinism.
The early 17th century featured a growth in the English commercial world and emerging parliamentary opposition to the royal prerogative. Presbyterians of the Church of Scotland shared many beliefs with the Puritans. These factors fostered an environment in which the Puritans were able to gain power. As a result of the First English Civil War (1642 – 46), the Puritans became the major political force in England. Some Puritan congregations wanted complete separation from all other Christians. These independent strands of Puritanism became more prominent in the 1640s after supporters in the Westminster Assembly were unable to forge a new English national church.
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... Puritan History Narrative History History of the Puritans under Elizabeth I History of the Puritans under James I History of the Puritans under Charles I History of the Puritans from ...
... The literature on Puritans, particularly biographical literature on individual Puritan ministers, became large already in the 17th century, and indeed the interests of Puritans in the narratives ... The historical literature on Puritans is, however quite problematic and subject to controversies of interpretation ... The great interest of authors of the 19th century in Puritan figures was routinely accused in the 20th century of consisting of anachronism and the reading back of contemporary ...
... information, marine archaeologists identified the wreck as the Puritan ... Video footage from the Puritan's resting place at 1,965 meters depth shows the "ALCOA PURITAN, NEW YORK" legend on the stern of the ship ...
... Christmas celebrations in Puritan New England (1620–1850?) were culturally and legally suppressed and thus, virtually non-existent ... The Puritan community found no Scriptural justification for celebrating Christmas, and associated such celebrations with paganism and idolatry ... earliest years of the Plymouth colony were troubled with non-Puritans attempting to make merry, and Governor William Bradford was forced to reprimand offenders ...
Famous quotes containing the word puritan:
“The Puritan through Lifes sweet garden goes
To pluck the thorn and cast away the rose.”
—Kenneth Hare (18881962)
“A puritan is a person who pours righteous indignation into the wrong things.”
—Gilbert Keith Chesterton (18741936)
“Reprehension is a kind of middle thing betwixt admonition and correction: it is sharpe admonition, but a milde correction. It is rather to be used because it may be a meanes to prevent strokes and blowes, especially in ingenuous and good natured children. [Blows are] the last remedy which a parent can use: a remedy which may doe good when nothing else can.”
—William Gouge, Puritan writer. As quoted in The Rise and Fall of Childhood by C. John Sommerville, ch. 11 (rev. 1990)