In 1969 the IUCN declared a national park to be a relatively large area the following defining characteristics:
- One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific, educative, and recreative interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty;
- Highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate exploitation or occupation as soon as possible in the whole area and to effectively enforce the respect of ecological, geomorphological, or aesthetic features which have led to its establishment; and
- Visitors are allowed to enter, under special conditions, for inspirational, educative, cultural, and recreative purposes.
In 1971 these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. These include:
- Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence
- Statutory legal protection
- Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection
- Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources (including the development of dams) qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, facilities, etc.
While national parks are generally understood to be administered by national governments (hence the name), in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia; similarly, national parks in the Netherlands are administered by the provinces. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, and the UK, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition.
Read more about this topic: National Park
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... A theoretical (or conceptual) definition gives the meaning of a word in terms of the theories of a specific discipline ... This type of definition assumes both knowledge and acceptance of the theories that it depends on ... An example of a theoretical definition is that of "Heat" in physics, which actually puts forth an entire theory of heat (involving accelerating molecules, etc.) ...
... Some definitions of language, such as early versions of Charles Hockett's "design features" definition, emphasize the spoken nature of language ... Mathematics would not qualify as a language under these definitions, as it is primarily a written form of communication (to see why, try reading Maxwell's equations out loud) ... However, these definitions would also disqualify sign languages, which are now recognized as languages in their own right, independent of spoken language ...
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