Model Parliament

The Model Parliament is the term, attributed to Frederic William Maitland, used for the 1295 Parliament of England of King Edward I. This assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs. Each county returned two knights, two burgesses were elected from each borough, and each city provided two citizens. This composition became the model for later parliaments, hence the name. A similar scheme had been used in summoning De Montfort's Parliament in 1265. That Parliament, however, had been called by Simon de Montfort in the midst of the Second Barons' War against Henry III of England; that the same scheme should be adopted by a king (Henry's son and heir, who had quelled Montfort's uprising) was remarkable.

Edward I summoned the parliament on 13 November 1295. In calling the parliament, Edward proclaimed in his writ of summons, "what touches all, should be approved of all, and it is also clear that common dangers should be met by measures agreed upon in common." At the time, Parliament's legislative authority was limited and its primary role was to levy taxes. Edward's paramount goal in summoning the parliament was to raise funds for his wars, specifically planned campaigns against the French and the Scots for the upcoming year, and countering an insurgency in Wales.

However, the resulting parliament became a model for a new function as well, the addressing of grievances with the king. "The elected members were far more anxious to establish the second function: to discuss grievances. A kind of quid pro quo was looked for: money for the Scottish campaign of 1296 would be forthcoming if certain grievances were addressed. This consciousness was growing, even if all was still in an embryonic state." The concept of "Parliament" was, in fact, such that the division into House of Commons and House of Lords had not yet taken place; the Model Parliament was unicameral, summoning 49 lords to sit with 292 representatives of the Commons.

Other articles related to "parliament, model parliament, parliaments":

Parliament - Proto-parliamentarian Institutions - England
... Most historians date the emergence of a parliament with some degree of power to which the throne had to defer no later than the rule of Edward I ... A meeting in 1295 became known as the Model Parliament because it set the pattern for later Parliaments ... The significant difference between the Model Parliament and the earlier Curia Regis was the addition of the Commons, that is, elected representatives ...
Rand Dyck - Model Parliament
... Dyck was responsible for the creation of the Laurentian University Model Parliament, or (LMP), in 1993 ...
Queen Elizabeth High School (Halifax, Nova Scotia) - Model Parliament - Previous Opposition Leaders and Prime Ministers
1994 Reform Party won the largest majority in the history of the school's model parliament), however the kidnapping of NDP Leader, Zimmer, caused strife in the reform ...

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