Mitosis

Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets, in two separate nuclei. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. This accounts for approximately 10% of the cell cycle.

Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells and the process varies in different species. For example, animals undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission.

The process of mitosis is fast and highly complex. The sequence of events is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During mitosis the pairs of chromatids condense and attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells which are still diploid cells.

Because cytokinesis usually occurs in conjunction with mitosis, "mitosis" is often used interchangeably with "mitotic phase". However, there are many cells where mitosis and cytokinesis occur separately, forming single cells with multiple nuclei. This occurs most notably among the fungi and slime moulds, but is found in various groups. Even in animals, cytokinesis and mitosis may occur independently, for instance during certain stages of fruit fly embryonic development. Errors in mitosis can either kill a cell through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to certain types of cancer.

Mitosis was discovered in frog, rabbit, and cat cornea cells in 1873 and described for the first time by the Polish histologist Wacław Mayzel in 1875.

Read more about Mitosis:  Overview of Cell Cycle in Relation To Mitosis, Significance, Consequences of Errors, Endomitosis, Timeline in Pictures

Other articles related to "mitosis":

Cell Cycle Checkpoint - G2 Checkpoint
... to check a number of factors to ensure the cell is ready for mitosis ... is passed, the cell initiates the many molecular processes that signal the beginning of mitosis ... of the CDK by the action of a "Maturation promoting factor" (Mitosis Promoting Factor, MPF) ...
Rho Family Of GTPases - Functions - Mitosis
... that is thought to include rho protein signaling is the process of cell division, mitosis ... shows some activity in microtubule formation and the overall process of mitosis has arisen ... is evidence both for and against for the importance of rho in mitosis ...
Tapetum (botany)
... As the sporogenous cells undergo mitosis, the nuclei of tapetal cells also divide ... Sometimes, this mitosis is not normal due to which many cells of mature tapetum become multinucleate ... The following processes are responsible for this Endomitosis Normal mitosis not followed by cytokinesis Formation of restitution nuclei Endoreduplication Tapetum ...
Mitosis (disambiguation)
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Meiome - Origin and Function - Origin - Sharing of Components During The Evolution of Meiosis and Mitosis
... during the early evolution of eukaryotes, mitosis and meiosis could have evolved in parallel, with both processes using common molecular components ... On this view, mitosis evolved from the molecular machinery used by bacteria for DNA replication and segregation, and meiosis evolved from the bacterial sexual process of transformation, but meiosis also made ...