Physiological and Neural Architecture of Language and Speech
Speaking is the default modality for language in all cultures. The production of spoken language depends on sophisticated capacities for controlling the lips, tongue and other components of the vocal apparatus, the ability to acoustically decode speech sounds, and the neurological apparatus required for acquiring and producing language. The study of the genetic bases for human language is still on a fairly basic level, and the only gene that has been positively implied in language production is FOXP2, which may cause a kind of congenital language disorder if affected by mutations.
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... Spoken language relies on our physical ability to produce sound, which is a longitudinal wave propagated through the air at a frequency capable of vibrating the human ear drum ... This ability depends on the physiology of the human speech organs ... By controlling the different parts of the speech apparatus the airstream can be manipulated to produce different speech sounds ...
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