Language

Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. It is impossible to know precisely how many languages there are in the world, and the number depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects. However, estimates vary between around 6,000 and 7,000 languages in number. Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual or tactile stimuli, for example in graphic writing, braille, or whistling. This is because human language is modality-independent. When used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules.

Human language is unique among the lifeforms of Earth because its complex structure affords a much wider range of possible expressions and uses than any known system of animal communication, all of which are generally closed systems, with limited functions and mostly genetically rather than socially transmitted. In contrast to non-human communication forms, human language has the properties of productivity, recursivity, and displacement. Human language is also the only system to rely mostly on social convention and learning. Language is thought to have originated when early hominins first started cooperating, gradually changing their primate communication systems as they acquired the ability to form a theory of other minds and shared intentionality.

This development is thought to have coincided with an increase in brain volume, and many linguists see the structures of language as having evolved to serve specific communicative functions. Language is processed in many different locations in the human brain, but especially in Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Humans acquire language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently when they are around three years old. The use of language is deeply entrenched in human culture. Therefore, in addition to its strictly communicative uses, language also has many social and cultural uses, such as signifying group identity, social stratification, as well as for social grooming and entertainment.

All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs with particular meanings. Oral and sign languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had for the later stages to have occurred. A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a language family. The languages that are most spoken in the world today belong to the Indo-European family, which includes languages such as English, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian and Hindi; the Sino-Tibetan languages, which include Mandarin Chinese, Cantonese and many others; Semitic languages, which include Arabic, Amharic and Hebrew; and the Bantu languages, which include Swahili, Zulu, Shona and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout Africa. The general consensus is that between 50 to 90% of languages spoken today will probably have become extinct by the year 2100.

Read more about Language:  Definitions, Origin, The Study of Language, Physiological and Neural Architecture of Language and Speech, Structure, Social Contexts of Use and Transmission, Linguistic Diversity

Other articles related to "language, languages":

Film - Theory - Language
... Film is considered to have its own language ... said, " Tarkovsky for me is the greatest, the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream." Examples of the ...
Macedonian Language - Vocabulary
... amount of its lexicon with these languages ... Other languages which have been in positions of power, such as Ottoman Turkish and increasingly English also provide a significant proportion of the loan words ... Prestige languages, such as Old Church Slavonic, which occupies a relationship to modern Macedonian comparable to the relationship of medieval Latin to modern Romance ...
Linguistic Diversity - Language Endangerment
... Language endangerment occurs when a language is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language ... Language loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers, and becomes a dead language ... If eventually no one speaks the language at all, it becomes an extinct language ...
Semitic Languages - Present Situation
... Arabic is the native language of majorities from Mauritania to Oman, and from Iraq to the Sudan ... As the language of the Qur'an and as a lingua franca, it is studied widely in the non-Arabic-speaking Muslim world as well ... The principal exception to this almost universal use of Arabic script is the Maltese language, genetically a descendant of the extinct Sicilian Arabic dialect ...
Macedonian Language
... makedonski jazik, ) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by approximately 2–3 million people principally in the region of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora ... It is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia and an official minority language in parts of Albania, Romania and Serbia ... Standard Macedonian was implemented as the official language of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1945 and has since developed a thriving literary tradition ...

Famous quotes containing the word language:

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    Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826)

    The hypothesis I wish to advance is that ... the language of morality is in ... grave disorder.... What we possess, if this is true, are the fragments of a conceptual scheme, parts of which now lack those contexts from which their significance derived. We possess indeed simulacra of morality, we continue to use many of the key expressions. But we have—very largely if not entirely—lost our comprehension, both theoretical and practical, of morality.
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    This is of the loon—I do not mean its laugh, but its looning,—is a long-drawn call, as it were, sometimes singularly human to my ear,—hoo-hoo-ooooo, like the hallooing of a man on a very high key, having thrown his voice into his head. I have heard a sound exactly like it when breathing heavily through my own nostrils, half awake at ten at night, suggesting my affinity to the loon; as if its language were but a dialect of my own, after all.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)