Indian Territory

Indian Territory, also known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America that was reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834.

While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians (Johnson v. M'Intosh). Treaties with the tribes severely restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; Indian tribes were largely self-governing, were suzerain nations, with established tribal governments and well established cultures. The region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War. Therefore, the geographical location commonly called "Indian Territory" was not a traditional territory.

After the Civil War the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the mid-west. These re-written treaties included provisions for a Territorial Legislature (which could only meet 30 days per year) with proportional representation from various tribes.

The Oklahoma organic act of 1890 created an organized incorporated territory of the United States of Oklahoma Territory, with the intent of combining the Oklahoma and Indian territories into a single State of Oklahoma. The residents of Indian Territory proposed to Congress that Indian Territory be admitted to the Union as the State of Sequoyah. However, Congress rejected the idea and Oklahoma became a state in 1907.

Read more about Indian Territory:  Relocation and Treaties, Tribes Indigenous To Oklahoma, Reductions of Area, Civil War, Reconstruction, Oklahoma and Indian Territories, End of Indian Territory

Other articles related to "indian, indians, indian territory, territory":

Rutherford B. Hayes - Presidency 1877–1881 - Indian Policy
... Interior Secretary Carl Schurz carried out Hayes's American Indian policy, beginning with preventing the War Department from taking over the Bureau ... assimilation into white culture, educational training, and dividing Indian land into individual allotments ... would lead to self-sufficiency and peace between Indians and whites ...
Sonuk Mikko - Civil War
... of eleven Southern states in 1861, both the Union and Confederacy vied for control of the Indian Territory ... Cooper attacked Unionist tribes in the Indian Territory, Mikko aligned his followers with Opothleyahola’s Upper Creeks and resisted ... as a captain in May 1862 and was assigned command of Company A of the First Indian Home Guards ...
Timeline Of Cherokee Removal - 1841–present
... ending hostilities among several Texas tribes, and, recognizing the tribal status of the Texas Indians. 8, 1887 The Dawes Act broke up tribal land holdings in Indian Territory, assigning it to separate households in individual allotments ... of 1898 abolished tribal constitutions and governments, in preparation the merger of Indian Territory with the Oklahoma Territory, to be admitted into the union ...
End of Indian Territory
... The citizens of Indian Territory tried, in 1905, to gain admission to the union as the State of Sequoyah, but were rebuffed by Congress and an Administration which did not want two new ... With Oklahoma statehood in November 1907, Indian Territory was extinguished ... Many Indians continue to live in Oklahoma, especially in the eastern part ...
Seminole Nation Of Oklahoma - History - In Indian Territory
... to gain an independent reservation, as they were first placed under the Creek in Indian Territory ... The United States urged the Indians on reservations to adopt subsistence agriculture, but less than half the land was good for agriculture, and a third was not useful for ... a portion of their reservation for the Seminole Freedmen following emancipation of slaves in Indian Territory in 1866 ...

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